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Neural processing of stereoscopic depth is conventionally associated with the dorsal (spatial) pathway in primate visual cortex. The role of depth information in the ventral (object) pathway has been less certain. We found prominent tuning for stereoscopic disparity in area V4, an intermediate stage in the ventral pathway. Eighty percent of the cells in our(More)
Tuning for the orientation of elongated, linear image elements (edges, bars, gratings), first discovered by Hubel and Wiesel, is considered a key feature of visual processing in the brain. It has been studied extensively in two dimensions (2D) using frontoparallel stimuli, but in real life most lines, edges and contours are slanted with respect to the(More)
We performed a quantitative characterization of binocular disparity-tuning functions in the ventral (object-processing) pathway of the macaque visual cortex. We measured responses of 452 area V4 neurons to stimuli with disparities ranging from -1.0 to +1.0 degrees. Asymmetric Gaussian functions fit the raw data best (median R = 0.90), capturing both the(More)
Mutations that eliminate DJ-1 expression cause a familial form of Parkinson's disease (PD). In sporadic PD, and many other neurodegenerative diseases, reactive astrocytes over-express DJ-1 whereas neurons maintain its expression at non-disease levels. Since DJ-1 has neuroprotective properties, and since astrocytes are known to support and protect neurons,(More)
We assessed whether fetal tissue containing the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) can restore age-related changes in the diurnal rhythm of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and anterior pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA. Young, middle-aged, and middle-aged SCN-transplanted rats were killed at seven times of day. In young rats, CRH mRNA(More)
The cellular and the inter-connective complexity of the central nervous system (CNS) necessitate's analysis of functioning at both the system and single cell levels. Systems neuroscience has developed procedures that facilitate the analysis of multicellular systems including multielectrode arrays, dye tracings and lesioning assays, and at the single cell(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) brains show evidence of mitochondrial respiratory Complex I deficiency, oxidative stress, and neuronal death. Complex I-inhibiting neurotoxins, such as the pesticide rotenone, cause neuronal death and parkinsonism in animal models. We have previously shown that DJ-1 over-expression in astrocytes augments their capacity to protect(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are distinct neurodegenerative disorders. We describe an 81-year-old woman with 3 years of progressive gait unsteadiness, frequent falls, and mild cognitive dysfunction, all considered clinically to be an early fronto-temporal neurodegenerative disorder. She died of an acute myocardial(More)
We studied the acute response of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100beta gene expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus to mild unilateral cortical contusion. Our goal was to evaluate and compare the expression patterns of each gene in the early stages of the astrocytic response to brain injury. RNA was extracted from the cerebral cortex(More)
DJ-1 deficiency is a cause of genetic Parkinson’s disease (PARK7 PD). In sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), however, DJ-1 is abundantly expressed in reactive astrocytes. This may represent a compensatory protective response. In initial support of this hypothesis, we have shown in vitro that DJ-1-overexpressing astrocytes protect neurons against(More)