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A series of nic- cloning vectors have been constructed analogous to the pUC plasmids but which are smaller in size and carry more extensive polylinker regions within the lacZ' gene. The vectors pMTL20 and pMTL21 carry six additional sites (AatII, MluI, NcoI, BglII, XhoI and StuI) to those present in pUC18 and pUC19, while pMTL22 and -23 possess eleven new(More)
Three variations to the structure of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus were made to try to change the substrate specificity from lactate to malate: Asp197----Asn, Thr246----Gly, and Gln102----Arg). Each modification shifts the specificity from lactate to malate, although only the(More)
The binding of substrates to lactate dehydrogenases induces a marked rearrangement of the protein structure in which a 'loop' of polypeptide (residues 98-110) closes over the active site of the enzyme. In this rearrangement, arginine 109 (a basic residue conserved in all known lactate dehydrogenase sequences and in the homologous malate dehydrogenases)(More)
The influence of aspartate-168 on the proton-donating and -accepting properties of histidine-195 (the active site acid/base catalyst in lactate dehydrogenase) was evaluated by use of site-directed mutagenesis to change the residue to asparagine and to alanine. Despite the fact that asparagine could form a hydrogen bond to histidine while alanine could not,(More)
Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to generate two mutant Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenases: in one, Trp-150 has been replaced with a tyrosine residue and, in the other, both Trp-150 and -80 are replaced with tyrosines. Both enzymes are fully catalytically active and their affinities for substrates and coenzymes, and thermal(More)
A series of hybrid plasmid molecules which contain both antibiotic resistance genes and the thyP3 gene of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi 3T have been constructed. Monomeric or restriction enzyme-cleaved plasmid DNA is capable of transforming competent cells to thymine prototrophy only. However, multimeric plasmid DNA can transform competent cells(More)
Using site-directed mutagenesis on the lactate dehydrogenase gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus, three amino acid substitutions have been made at sites in the enzyme which we suggest in part determine specificity toward different hydroxyacids (R-CHOH-COOH). To change the preferred substrates from the pyruvate/lactate pair (R = -CH3) to the(More)
The Bacillus caldotenax L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (lct) has been cloned into Escherichia coli, using the Bacillus stearothermophilus lct gene as a hybridisation probe, and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. The lct structural gene consists of an open reading frame of 951 base pairs commencing with an ATG start codon and followed by a TAA stop(More)