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Spatial graphs in landscape ecology and conservation have emerged recently as a powerful methodology to model patterns in the topology and connectivity of habitat patches (structural connectivity) and the movement of genes, individuals or populations among these patches (potential functional connectivity). Most spatial graph’s applications to date have been(More)
Human-induced reductions in species richness might alter the quality of ecosystem services when the remaining species are not able to substitute the functions provided by extirpated species. We examined how human disturbances (nutrient enrichment, land use intensification, instream habitat degradation and the presence of alien species) influence the species(More)
The spread of alien molluscs is a serious threat to native biodiversity in fresh waters. Alien freshwater molluscs may deplete the resources of native species and alter the physical structure of the habitat through their shell mass. These changes might have both positive and negative effects on native community members. We investigated the native(More)
Traits-based community analyses are receiving increasing attention. However, consistent interpretation of empirical results and ecological understanding in stream ecology are limited by ambiguous terminology. Furthermore, the measurement scales used to analyze trait data, especially ordinal-scale data, are often inappropriately applied. We identify and(More)
Sperm size and quality are key factors for fertilization success. There is increasing empirical evidence demonstrating that sperm form and function are influenced by selective pressures. Theoretical models predict that sperm competition could favour the evolution of longer sperm. In hermaphrodites, self-fertilizing species are expected to have shorter sperm(More)
Although several studies have examined the functional diversity of freshwater macroinvertebrates, the variety of methodologies combined with the absence of a synthetic review make our understanding of this field incomplete. Therefore, we reviewed the current methodology for assessing functional diversity in freshwater macroinvertebrate research. Our review(More)
Headwater stream macroinvertebrates play an important role in processing allochthonous leaf litter, which suggests that bottom-up forces control macroinvertebrates. However, because larvae of stream-breeding salamanders are predators of macroinvertebrates and are abundant consumers in these ecosystems, macroinvertebrates in fishless headwater streams might(More)
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