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OBJECTIVES It is still debated if pre-existing minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (MVs) affect the virological outcomes of first-line NNRTI-containing ART. METHODS This Europe-wide case-control study included ART-naive subjects infected with drug-susceptible HIV-1 as revealed by population sequencing, who achieved virological suppression on first-line(More)
BACKGROUND The protease inhibitor darunavir has been shown to be efficacious in highly treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection, but needs to be assessed in patients with a broader range of treatment experience. We did a randomised, controlled, phase III trial (TITAN) to compare 48-week efficacy and safety of darunavir-ritonavir with that of(More)
BACKGROUND In virologically suppressed patients, switching to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy could avoid resistance and adverse events from continuing nucleoside analogues. METHODS Two hundred and fifty-six patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL on current antiretrovirals were switched to darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily, either as monotherapy (n =(More)
In most European countries, HIV drug resistance testing has become a routine clinical tool. However, its practical implementation in a clinical context is demanding. The European HIV Drug Resistance Panel was established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists on this topic and to propose quality control measures. The panel recommends(More)
Serum concentrations of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) were determined in the sera of 67 HIV-seropositive patients in different stages of HIV disease and in the sera of 75 HIV-seronegative healthy individuals. In the asymptomatic (AS) HIV-infected persons MBL concentrations were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower than in the HIV-seronegative controls,(More)
Heat shock proteins (Hsp), especially 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) play an important role in the life cycle of HIV-1 virus. Hsp70 is overexpressed in HIV-infected cells and this is the most abundant Hsp associated with HIV virions. The aim of our study was to investigate whether HIV infection increases the extent of specific humoral immune response(More)
This review summarizes data on the presence and function of different heat shock proteins (Hsp) in the HIV virions and the infected cells. A 60 kD heat shock protein-like molecule is present in the envelope of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 which can specifically interact with the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. The role of cholesterol in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare one protease inhibitor (PI)-based and two PI-sparing antiretroviral therapy regimens. METHODS International, open label, randomized study of antiretroviral drug-naive patients, with CD4 lymphocyte counts >/= 200 x 106 cells/l and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels > 500 copies/ml. Treatment assignment to stavudine and didanosine plus indinavir(More)
HIV drug resistance is one of the major limitations in the successful treatment of HIV-infected patients using currently available antiretroviral combination therapies. When appropriate, drug susceptibility profiles should be taken into consideration in the choice of a specific combination therapy. Guidelines recommending resistance testing in certain(More)
BACKGROUND Esophageal candidiasis (EC) remains one of the most common AIDS defining illnesses in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but little is known about factors associated with EC after starting HAART. OBJECTIVES To describe changes in the use of antimycotic medication, the(More)