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Wireless mesh networking allows network operators and service providers to offer nearly ubiquitous broadband access at a low cost to customers. In this paper, we focus on QoS-aware mesh networks operated by multiple operators in a cooperative manner. In particular, we identify the general security requirements of such networks and we give an overview on the(More)
The death receptor, CD95/Fas, serves to eliminate potentially dangerous, self-reactive B cells. Engagement of B-cell receptors (BCR) on mature B-cells mediates the escape from cell death resulting in the activation and expansion of antigen specific clones. In addition to the antigen receptors, the receptors of B-cell activating factor belong to the tumor(More)
The Fc receptor (FcγRIIb) inhibits B cell responses when coengaged with B cell receptor (BCR), and has become a target for new autoimmune disease therapeutics. For example, BCR and FcγRIIb coengagement via the Fc-engineered anti-CD19 XmAb5871 suppresses humoral immune responses. We now assess effects of XmAb5871 on other activation pathways, including the(More)
B cell development and activation are regulated by combined signals mediated by the B cell receptor (BCR), receptors for the B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF-R) and the innate receptor, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). However, the underlying mechanisms by which these signals cooperate in human B cells remain unclear. Our aim(More)
While oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is one of the most popular cultivated edible mushrooms, there is scanty information about the microbial community taking part in mushroom substrate production. In this study, an improved sequence-aided terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to identify and (semi-)quantify the dominant(More)
The importance of the BCR and TLR9 in autoimmunity and in the production of auto-antibodies is well established but the underlying molecular mechanism still needs to be determined. Here, we aim to characterize the BCR-TLR9 cross-talk by its effect on T-bet, as T-bet is activated and regulated by both receptors and has an important role in class-switching to(More)
The most important feature of B cells is the production of Abs upon activation; additionally, B cells produce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to certain stimuli. IL-10-producing B cells represent a major subset of regulatory B cells (Bregs) that suppress autoimmune and inflammatory responses. B cells play a crucial role in the development(More)
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