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The function and nature of inhibition of neurons in the visual cortex have been the focus of both experimental and theoretical investigations. There are two ways in which inhibition can suppress synaptic excitation. In hyperpolarizing inhibition, negative and positive currents sum linearly to produce a net change in membrane potential. In contrast, shunting(More)
This intracellular study investigates synaptic mechanisms of orientation and direction selectivity in cat area 17. Visually evoked inhibition was analyzed in 88 cells by detecting spike suppression, hyperpolarization, and reduction of trial-to-trial variability of membrane potential. In 25 of these cells, inhibition visibility was enhanced by depolarization(More)
In order to better understand the synaptic nature of the integration process operated by cortical neurons during sensory processing, it is necessary to devise quantitative methods which allow one to infer the level of conductance change evoked by the sensory stimulation and, consequently, the dynamics of the balance between excitation and inhibition. Such(More)
We review here the development of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type models of cerebral cortex and thalamic neurons for network simulations. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of cortical neurons were analyzed from several preparations, and we selected the four most prominent electrophysiological classes of neurons. These four classes are "fast spiking",(More)
Intracellular recordings of neuronal membrane potential are a central tool in neurophysiology. In many situations, especially in vivo, the traditional limitation of such recordings is the high electrode resistance and capacitance, which may cause significant measurement errors during current injection. We introduce a computer-aided technique, Active(More)
The receptive field of a visual neurone is classically defined as the region of space (or retina) where a visual stimulus evokes a change in its firing activity. Intracellular recordings in cat area 17 show that the visually evoked synaptic integration field extends over a much larger area than that established on the basis of spike activity. Synaptic(More)
This study aims to clarify how endogenous release of cortical acetylcholine (ACh) modulates the balance between excitation and inhibition evoked in visual cortex. We show that electrical stimulation in layer 1 produced a significant release of ACh measured intracortically by chemoluminescence and evoked a composite synaptic response recorded intracellularly(More)
Whole cell patch recordings have been realized in the primary visual cortex of the anesthetized and paralyzed cat, in order to better characterize input resistance and time constant of visual cortical cells in vivo. Measurements of conductance changes evoked by visual stimulation were derived from voltage clamp recordings achieved in continuous mode at two(More)
Synaptic noise is thought to be a limiting factor for computational efficiency in the brain. In visual cortex (V1), ongoing activity is present in vivo, and spiking responses to simple stimuli are highly unreliable across trials. Stimulus statistics used to plot receptive fields, however, are quite different from those experienced during natural visuomotor(More)