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The function and nature of inhibition of neurons in the visual cortex have been the focus of both experimental and theoretical investigations. There are two ways in which inhibition can suppress synaptic excitation. In hyperpolarizing inhibition, negative and positive currents sum linearly to produce a net change in membrane potential. In contrast, shunting(More)
This intracellular study investigates synaptic mechanisms of orientation and direction selectivity in cat area 17. Visually evoked inhibition was analyzed in 88 cells by detecting spike suppression, hyperpolarization, and reduction of trial-to-trial variability of membrane potential. In 25 of these cells, inhibition visibility was enhanced by depolarization(More)
We review here the development of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type models of cerebral cortex and thalamic neurons for network simulations. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of cortical neurons were analyzed from several preparations, and we selected the four most prominent electrophysiological classes of neurons. These four classes are "fast spiking",(More)
In order to better understand the synaptic nature of the integration process operated by cortical neurons during sensory processing, it is necessary to devise quantitative methods which allow one to infer the level of conductance change evoked by the sensory stimulation and, consequently, the dynamics of the balance between excitation and inhibition. Such(More)
Intracellular recordings of neuronal membrane potential are a central tool in neurophysiology. In many situations, especially in vivo, the traditional limitation of such recordings is the high electrode resistance and capacitance, which may cause significant measurement errors during current injection. We introduce a computer-aided technique, Active(More)
The present study provides evidence that, in mice subjected to the forced swimming test, the anti-immobility effect of the tricyclic antidepressants, desipramine and imipramine (16-32 mg/kg) was antagonized by the acute co-administration of a benzodiazepine, diazepam (0.25-2 mg/kg) and lorazepam (0.125 mg/kg). This effect cannot be accounted for by(More)
The receptive field of a visual neurone is classically defined as the region of space (or retina) where a visual stimulus evokes a change in its firing activity. Intracellular recordings in cat area 17 show that the visually evoked synaptic integration field extends over a much larger area than that established on the basis of spike activity. Synaptic(More)
Morphine (8-100 mg/kg IP) induces place preference conditioning in mice. The effect of two different periods of isolation (15 and 30 days) was examined. Mice isolated for 15 days but not 30 days exhibited place preference conditioning to morphine (8 mg/kg). After 30 days of isolation morphine could not induce place preference conditioning with the following(More)
In mice, isolation-induced social behavioural deficits are attenuated by stimulants of 5-HT1B receptors, such as TFMPP or CGS 120 66B. Repeated treatment with RU 24969 (5 mg/kg, daily, for 3 days) reduced the effect of TFMPP and that of other 5-HT1B agonists (CGS 120 66B, m-CPP, RU 24969). Similarly, repeated treatment with CGS 120 66B (8 mg/kg, twice a day(More)
This study aims to clarify how endogenous release of cortical acetylcholine (ACh) modulates the balance between excitation and inhibition evoked in visual cortex. We show that electrical stimulation in layer 1 produced a significant release of ACh measured intracortically by chemoluminescence and evoked a composite synaptic response recorded intracellularly(More)