Cynthia Zepeda

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Two outbreaks of encephalitis consistent with an etiology of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus occurred in equines on the Pacific coast of southern Mexico in 1993 (Chiapas State) and in 1996 (Oaxaca State). In Chiapas, there were 125 cases, of which 63 were fatal and in Oaxaca, there were 32 cases and 12 fatalities. Virus was isolated from two(More)
Compartmentalisation is a new tool for disease management within a country. In aquaculture, the successful application of compartmentalisation is largely dependent on the system of production and the epidemiology of the disease(s) for which the compartment is being defined. Therefore, compartmentalisation may not be universally applicable across all systems(More)
Monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSS) are essential activities for official Veterinary Services. In addition, the increased trade in animals and animal products over recent years has increased the importance of international disease reporting. A reliable surveillance system is the key to early warning of a change in the health status of any animal(More)
Avian influenza (AI) is a disease of concern for the poultry industry. In its highly pathogenic form, AI viruses (AIVs) can cause a high morbidity and case fatality rate as well as severe economic consequences. Low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs), in contrast, only cause localized infections in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of affected birds.(More)
The link between international trade, animal health and epidemiology has been recognized for a long time and has taken an additional importance in the aftermath of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and of the inception of the World Trade Organization. The Agreement on the Application of(More)
The rationale for establishing trade 'regions' and 'zones' is based on principles of epidemiological science and risk analysis that assess and manage animal disease risks so that the safety of trade can be ensured. However, the boundaries of geographical regions and zones may readily be breached through numerous epidemiological pathways. The concept of a(More)
Free trade of animals and their products is based on the international or bilateral recognition of the health status of the animal populations being traded. This recognition is based on documentation of their health status by the exporting country, based on the results of continuing surveillance. According to the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World(More)
The agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS agreement) was one of the major products of the GATT's Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others are part of the treaty that established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the(More)
The degree of disease risk represented by the introduction, spread, or establishment of one or several diseases through the importation of animals and animal products is assessed by importing countries through an analysis of risk. The components of a risk analysis include hazard identification, risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. A(More)
Diagnostic laboratories are an essential component of animal disease surveillance systems. To understand the occurrence of disease in populations, surveillance systems rely on random or targeted surveys using three approaches: clinical, serological and virological surveillance. Clinical surveillance is the basis for early detection of disease and is usually(More)