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Normative models of choice in economics and biology usually expect preferences to be consistent across contexts, or "rational" in economic language. Following a large body of literature reporting economically irrational behaviour in humans, breaches of rationality by animals have also been recently described. If proven systematic, these findings would(More)
Although parrots share with corvids and primates many of the traits believed to be associated with advanced cognitive processing, knowledge of parrot cognition is still limited to a few species, none of which are Neotropical. Here we examine the ability of three Neotropical parrot species (Blue-Fronted Amazons, Hyacinth and Lear's macaws) to spontaneously(More)
During a severe influenza pandemic individuals and families can, by following well-directed and scientifically-based measures, not only benefit themselves but also play an effective role in reducing transmission rates and the burden on public services. Such guidelines should be provided as clearly and comprehensively as possible by official sources. Here we(More)
Research on the conditions favoring the evolution of complex cognition and its underlying neural structures has increasingly stressed the role of environmental variability. These studies suggest that the ability to learn, behave flexibly and innovate would be favored under unpredictable variations in the availability of resources, as it would enable(More)
We investigated the influence of energetic state at the time of acquaintance with a new food source on preference for that source on later encounters, using wild-caught European starlings as subjects. Twelve birds learned to obtain food rewards by pecking at either of two keys identified by color. The keys were encountered in different sessions, while the(More)
The identification of memory and learning in medically important mosquito species has been of epidemiological interest mainly because of the implications of learning on the pattern of contact between vectors and hosts. Empirical results either showing or suggesting the existence of cognitive abilities in mosquitoes have been reported in a number of(More)
Although it is in the Tropics where nearly half of the world population lives and infectious disease burden is highest, little is known about the impact of influenza pandemics in this area. We investigated the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic relative to mortality rates from various outcomes in pre-pandemic years throughout a wide range of(More)
Kin-selection theory has thrived in the explanation of a wide variety of biological phenomena, chiefly the evolution of biological altruism as that found in sterile castes of eusocial insects. Much of the way in which it has been tested is based on the existence of conflicts over sex-ratio production within eusocial colonies. However, despite neatly showing(More)
Both the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere annual WHO influenza vaccine recommendations are designed to ensure vaccine delivery before the winter-time peak of viral circulation in each hemisphere. However, influenza seasonal patterns are highly diverse in tropical countries and may be out of phase with the WHO recommendations for their respective(More)