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A Doppler signal converter has been developed to facilitate cardiovascular and exercise physiology research. This device directly converts audio signals from a clinical Doppler ultrasound imaging system into a real-time analog signal that accurately represents blood flow velocity and is easily recorded by any standard data acquisition system. This real-time(More)
We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured(More)
Forearm vascular responses to intra-arterial infusions of endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators have been thoroughly characterized in humans. While the forearm is a well-established experimental model for studying human vascular function, it is of limited consequence to systemic cardiovascular control owing to its small muscle mass and blood(More)
BACKGROUND Sympathetic nerve activity is increased in awake and regularly breathing patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Over time, repetitive hypoxic stress could alter sympathetic chemoreflex function in OSA. METHODS We determined the responses to acute hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.1, for 5 min), static handgrip exercise, and the(More)
We examined whether the altered orthostatic tolerance following 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) was related to inadequate sympathetic outflow or to excessive reductions in cardiac output during a 10- to 15-min head-up tilt (HUT) test. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP, Finapres), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography), and stroke(More)
To test the hypothesis that head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) for 14 days alters vascular reactivity to vasodilatory and vasoconstrictor stimuli, the reactive hyperemic forearm blood flow (RHBF, measured by venous occlusion plethysmography) and mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by Finapres) responses after 10 min of circulatory arrest were measured in a(More)
BACKGROUND Blood flow limitation to exercising muscles engages the muscle reflex during exercise, evoking an increase in heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). METHODS AND RESULTS In the current study, we examined forearm flow and autonomic responses to ischemic handgrip in young and older subjects. We studied(More)
We examined the effects of dynamic one-legged knee extension exercise on mean blood velocity (MBV) and muscle interstitial metabolite concentrations in healthy young subjects (n = 7). Femoral MBV (Doppler), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle interstitial metabolite (adenosine, lactate, phosphate, K(+), pH, and H(+); by microdialysis) concentrations(More)
We measured brachial and femoral artery flow velocity in eight subjects and peroneal and median muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in five subjects during tilt testing to 40 degrees. Tilt caused similar increases in MSNA in the peroneal and median nerves. Tilt caused a fall in femoral artery flow velocity, whereas no changes in flow velocity were seen(More)
Bed rest reduces orthostatic tolerance. Despite decades of study, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this report we examined hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 24 h of bed rest. LBNP allows for baroreceptor disengagement in a graded fashion. We measured heart rate (HR),(More)