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The human Y chromosome began to evolve from an autosome hundreds of millions of years ago, acquiring a sex-determining function and undergoing a series of inversions that suppressed crossing over with the X chromosome. Little is known about the recent evolution of the Y chromosome because only the human Y chromosome has been fully sequenced. Prevailing(More)
The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the(More)
Genes regulated by androgenic hormones are of critical importance for the normal physiological function of the human prostate gland, and they contribute to the development and progression of prostate carcinoma. We used cDNA microarrays containing 1500 prostate-derived cDNAs to profile transcripts regulated by androgens in prostate cancer cells. This study(More)
Human chromosome 2 was formed by the head-to-head fusion of two ancestral chromosomes that remained separate in other primates. Sequences that once resided near the ends of the ancestral chromosomes are now interstitially located in 2q13-2q14.1. Portions of these sequences had duplicated to other locations prior to the fusion. Here we present analyses of(More)
Pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex, is essential for normal lung function, and deficiency of surfactant can result in respiratory-distress syndrome (RDS) in the prematurely born infant. Some studies have pointed towards a genetic contribution to the aetiology of RDS. Because the surfactant protein B (SP-B) is important for optimal surfactant(More)
Ovarian carcinomas with mutations in the tumour suppressor BRCA2 are particularly sensitive to platinum compounds. However, such carcinomas ultimately develop cisplatin resistance. The mechanism of that resistance is largely unknown. Here we show that acquired resistance to cisplatin can be mediated by secondary intragenic mutations in BRCA2 that restore(More)
We report a comprehensive comparative analysis of human and mouse olfactory receptor (OR) genes. The OR family is the largest mammalian gene family known. We identify approximately 93% of an estimated 1500 mouse ORs, exceeding previous estimates and the number of human ORs by 50%. Only 20% are pseudogenes, giving a functional OR repertoire in mice that is(More)
We have placed 7,600 cytogenetically defined landmarks on the draft sequence of the human genome to help with the characterization of genes altered by gross chromosomal aberrations that cause human disease. The landmarks are large-insert clones mapped to chromosome bands by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Each clone contains a sequence tag that is(More)
The p27Kip1 (p27) gene encodes an inducible inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Using a murine p27 cDNA as probe, we obtained a human cDNA clone and subsequently used it to isolate a genomic clone of this gene. The coding region of the human p27 gene was contained in two exons. Both the amino acid sequence and intron-exon organization of p27 were(More)
Subtelomeres are duplication-rich, structurally variable regions of the human genome situated just proximal of telomeres. We report here that the most terminally located human subtelomeric genes encode a previously unrecognized third subclass of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein family, whose known members reorganize the actin cytoskeleton in response to(More)