Cynthia A. de Wit

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periods of significant environmental change, the planet’s environment has been unusually stable for the past 10,000 years. This period of stability — known to geologists as the Holocene — has seen human civilizations arise, develop and thrive. Such stability may now be under threat. Since the Industrial Revolution, a new era has arisen, the Anthropocene, in(More)
This review summarises current knowledge about production volumes, physico-chemical properties, analysis, environmental occurrence, fate and behaviour and human exposure to the "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). We define the term NBFRs as relating to BFRs which are new to the market or newly/recently observed in the environment. Restrictions and(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) containing two to seven bromines are ubiquitous in Arctic biotic and abiotic samples (from zooplankton to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and humans; air, soil, sediments). The fully brominated decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and polybrominated biphenyls(More)
Several brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were analyzed in peregrine falcon eggs collected in 1987-1999, including the constituents of the technical polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) products Penta (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154), Octa (BDE-183), and Deca (BDE-209), hexabrominated biphenyl (BB-153), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). The eggs(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are commonly used flame retardants. During the past years, concerns have increased due to their occurrence in the environment and humans. In general, the concentrations of lower brominated (tetra-penta) diphenyl ethers in biota exceed those of the most heavily used product, decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE). In this(More)
In this paper, we review those data which have recently become available for brominated flame retardants (particularly the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)) in samples from the European environment. Environmental compartments studied comprise the atmosphere, sediments and soils, sewage sludges, and a variety of biological(More)
The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth system. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundary framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) containing two to 10 bromines are ubiquitous in the Arctic, in both abiotic and biotic samples. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is also ubiquitous in the Arctic, with the gamma-HBCD isomer predominating in air, the alpha-HBCD isomer predominating in biota and similar concentrations of alpha-, beta- and gamma-HBCD found(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including octa-decaBDEs, were found in soil and earthworm samples collected in 2000 from three research stations (reference plots and sewage-sludge-amended plots) and two farms (reference and amended/flooded soils) in Sweden. Sewage-sludge amendment at the research stations increased concentrations of all BDE(More)
The diastereomeric composition of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in eggs of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), guillemot (Uria aalge) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) as well as the guillemots' main prey, herring (Clupea harengus) was determined by reversed-phase chromatography with triple-stage quadrupole(More)