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BACKGROUND Autism occurs 10 times more often in children with Down syndrome than in the general population, but diagnosing co-occurring autism in Down syndrome with severe intellectual disability is challenging. The objective of this case-control study was to identify characteristics differentiating children with trisomy 21 with and without autism and to(More)
Maintaining upright posture is a complex process involving multiple afferent systems. The aim of this study was to measure the postural stability of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared with children with typical neurodevelopment and to measure the relative contributions of the visual, somatosensory, and vestibular afferent systems in each(More)
UNLABELLED This study compared production of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 children with autism spectrum disorder to those from matched controls. Levels of all Th2 cytokines were significantly higher in cases after incubation in media alone, but the IFN-gamma/IL-13 ratio was not significantly(More)
Bone development, casein-free diet use, supplements, and medications were assessed for 75 boys with autism or autism spectrum disorder, ages 4-8 years. Second metacarpal bone cortical thickness (BCT), measured on hand-wrist radiographs, and % deviations in BCT from reference medians were derived. BCT increased with age, but % deviations evidenced a(More)
OBJECTIVE The impact of abnormal feeding behaviors reported for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) on their nutritional status is unknown. We compared nutrient intake from food consumed by children with and without ASD and examined nutrient deficiency and excess. METHODS Prospective 3-day food records and BMI for children (2-11 years) with ASD(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) as it is commonly used in clinical practice. ADOS classifications were compared to final diagnoses given by a multidisciplinary team to 584 children referred for evaluation for possible autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. A(More)
This study examines whether sensory differences can be used to classify meaningful subgroups of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with ASD aged 2-10 years (n = 228) completed the Short Sensory Profile. Model-based cluster analysis was used to extract sensory subtypes. The relationship of these subtypes to age, gender,(More)
Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digit (2D:4D) are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Elongation of the 4th digit in response to testosterone is(More)
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms in a general population of children with autism or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). The study site was a clinic specializing in ASD in a large pediatric medical center serving a 10 county area in the midwestern USA. In a sample of 137 children, age 24-96 months,(More)