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BACKGROUND Autism occurs 10 times more often in children with Down syndrome than in the general population, but diagnosing co-occurring autism in Down syndrome with severe intellectual disability is challenging. The objective of this case-control study was to identify characteristics differentiating children with trisomy 21 with and without autism and to(More)
Maintaining upright posture is a complex process involving multiple afferent systems. The aim of this study was to measure the postural stability of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared with children with typical neurodevelopment and to measure the relative contributions of the visual, somatosensory, and vestibular afferent systems in each(More)
Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digit (2D:4D) are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Elongation of the 4th digit in response to testosterone is(More)
UNLABELLED This study compared production of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 children with autism spectrum disorder to those from matched controls. Levels of all Th2 cytokines were significantly higher in cases after incubation in media alone, but the IFN-gamma/IL-13 ratio was not significantly(More)
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder with a strong genetic component. While candidate regions of the genome have been identified, location of genes conferring susceptibility to autism has been hindered by the heterogeneity within this clinically defined disorder, and the likely contribution of many genes of weak effect. Subsetting samples on the(More)
This study examines whether sensory differences can be used to classify meaningful subgroups of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with ASD aged 2-10 years (n = 228) completed the Short Sensory Profile. Model-based cluster analysis was used to extract sensory subtypes. The relationship of these subtypes to age, gender,(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the agreement between parent and teacher perceptions of specific social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHOD Informant ratings were generated concerning 45 children with ASD between the ages of 5 and 14 years who were enrolled in social skills groups at 2 Midwestern outpatient(More)
OBJECTIVE The abnormality of intrinsic brain activity in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is still inconclusive. Contradictory results have been found pointing towards hyper-activity or hypo-activity in various brain regions. The present research aims to investigate the spatial and spectral signatures of aberrant brain activity in an unprecedented frequency(More)
Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often are evaluated with electroencephalogram (EEG) studies to assess their risk for seizures or other underlying abnormalities. Their risk is estimated at 7% - 42%. EEG studies were conducted on a subgroup of children while following established practice parameters for evaluating children for ASD. Abnormal(More)
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