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Defining hope as a cognitive set that is composed of a reciprocally derived sense of successful (a) agency (goal-directed determination) and (b) pathways (planning of ways to meet goals), an individual-differences measure is developed. Studies demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and the factor structure identifies the(More)
Assuming that children are goal-oriented, it is suggested that their thoughts are related to two components--agency and pathways. Agency thoughts reflect the perception that children can initiate and sustain action toward a desired goal; pathways thoughts reflect the children's perceived capability to produce routes to those goals. Hope reflects the(More)
Defining hope as a cognitive set comprising agency (belief in one's capacity to initiate and sustain actions) and pathways (belief in one's capacity to generate routes) to reach goals, the Hope Scale was developed and validated previously as a dispositional self-report measure of hope (Snyder et al., 1991). The present 4 studies were designed to develop and(More)
A cognitive, motivational theory is introduced to the educational research community. Hope theory integrates the conceptualization of goals, along with the strategies to achieve those goals (pathways), and the motivation to pursue those goals (agency). In a 6-year longitudinal study, individual differences in hope, as measured by the Hope Scale (C. R.(More)
Six studies regarding forgiveness are presented. The Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS), a self-report measure of dispositional forgiveness (with subscales to assess forgiveness of self, others, and situations) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. Forgiveness correlated positively with cognitive flexibility, positive affect, and(More)
Defining hope as a cognitive set compromising agency (belief in one's capacity to initiate and sustain actions) and pathways (belief in one's capacity to generate routes) to reach goals, the Hope Scale was developed and validated previously as a dispositional self-report measure of hope (Snyder et al., 1991). The present four studies were designed to(More)
OBJECTIVE To report two cases of seizures following administration of levofoxacin and ciprofloxacin. CASE SUMMARY A 75-year-old white woman admitted to the hospital was prescribed levofloxacin for ischemic toes. After receiving three doses of oral levofloxacin, the patient experienced a seizure. One month later, the patient was rechallenged with(More)
Eighty-nine early adolescents were measured for perceptions of hope, exposure to violence, and perceived vulnerability to victimization. Results showed the presence of high hope, together with a high degree of exposure to violence. The adolescents were about equally divided regarding the nature of their own death, while most predicted a violent death for(More)
In a sample of 100 community-dwelling older adults (mean age of 76), higher hope related to greater life satisfaction and better perceived physical health, but hope did not relate to number of illnesses or functional disability. The high-relative to low-hope participants were more confident of reaching their goals, and felt that they were further along in(More)