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Recent years have seen an explosion of research on the N2 component of the event-related potential, a negative wave peaking between 200 and 350 ms after stimulus onset. This research has focused on the influence of "cognitive control," a concept that covers strategic monitoring and control of motor responses. However, rich research traditions focus on(More)
Words have been found to elicit a negative potential at the scalp peaking at approximately 400 ms that is strongly modulated by semantic context. The current study used whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) as male subjects read sentences ending with semantically congruous or incongruous words. Compared with congruous words, sentence-terminal incongruous(More)
Measures of electrical brain activity (event-related potentials, ERPs) have been useful in understanding language processing for several decades. Extant data suggest that the amplitude of the N400 component of the ERP is a general index of the ease or difficulty of retrieving stored conceptual knowledge associated with a word, which is dependent on both the(More)
This paper describes recommended methods for the use of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in clinical research and reviews applications to a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Techniques are presented for eliciting, recording, and quantifying three major cognitive components with confirmed clinical utility: mismatch negativity (MMN),(More)
Poor memory ability and small hippocampal volume measurements in magnetic resonance images co-occur in neurological patients. Numerous studies have examined the relationship between memory performance and hippocampal volumes in participants without neurological or psychiatric disorders, with widely varying results. Three hypotheses about volume-memory(More)
Because context has a robust influence on the processing of subsequent words, the idea that readers and listeners predict upcoming words has attracted research attention, but prediction has fallen in and out of favor as a likely factor in normal comprehension. We note that the common sense of this word includes both benefits for confirmed predictions and(More)
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 18 normal adults as they read sentences that ended with words used literally, metaphorically, or in an intermediate literal mapping condition. In the latter condition, the literal sense of the word was used in a way that prompted readers to map conceptual structure from a different domain. ERPs(More)
Forty-eight healthy adults aged 65-85 were recruited for structural magnetic resonance scans after an extensive neuropsychological battery that ensured a high degree of variability across the sample in performance on long-term memory tests, and on tests traditionally thought to rely on prefrontal cortex. Gray matter volumes were measured for three gyri in(More)
Age-related deficits in source memory have been attributed to alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, but little is known about the neural basis of such changes. The present study examined the time course of item and source memory retrieval by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with focal lesions in lateral PFC and in healthy(More)
Although the sensitivity of the N400 to semantic processing is well established, late positive ERP components are also elicited during sentence comprehension. We suggest that there are multiple such components differing in scalp topography, and that a larger frontal positivity often follows the larger N400 elicited by congruent but unexpected sentence(More)