Curtis Smart

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We have previously shown that cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower is associated with the insertion into the mitochondrial DNA of a novel open reading frame (ORF) located 3' to the atpA gene. Here, we show that in mitochondria from the sterile line, this novel ORF (ORF522) is cotranscribed with atpA. We have identified the product of the ORF522 as being(More)
Mitochondrial gene expression was characterized during meiosis in sunflower anthers. In situ hybridization experiments showed that there was a marked accumulation of four mitochondrial gene transcripts (atpA, atp9, cob, and rrn26) in young meiotic cells. This pattern of transcript accumulation was only detected for mitochondrial genes and not for(More)
During puberty, pregnancy, lactation and post-lactation, breast tissue undergoes extensive remodelling and the disruption of these events can lead to cancer. In vitro studies of mammary tissue and its malignant transformation regularly employ mammary epithelial cells cultivated on matrigel or floating collagen rafts. In these cultures, mammary epithelial(More)
The initiation of the anti-TNP response to TNP-Ficoll in the amphibian Xenopus laevis has been studied. Although the response to this antigen is thymus independent in mammals, it is thymus dependent for the first three days following immunization in Xenopus. This thymus regulation is not MHC restricted, since it can be substituted for by thymus xenografts,(More)
Idarubicin is a highly lipophilic anthracycline and appears effective against tumours resistant to conventional anthracyclines. Confocal microscopy demonstrates predominantly cytoplasmic idarubicin accumulation. This distribution is unaltered by resistance status or the resistance reversing agent verapamil. Our results contrast with studies on conventional(More)
Chemokines are small soluble molecules that play critical roles in wound healing, infection, and cancer progression. In particular, overexpression of the C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in multiple cancer types correlates with poor patient prognosis. Animal studies have shown that CCL2 signals to macrophages and breast cancer cells to promote tumor(More)
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