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Until recently, the only risk factors implicated in noninherited cases of Alzheimer's disease were increasing age, Down's syndrome, and probably, head injury. Having found that herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) is present in the brain of many elderly people, we discovered that it is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease when in the central nervous system(More)
Host-derived anti-infective proteins represent an important source of sequences for designing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However such sequences are often long and comprise diverse amino acids with uncertain contribution to biological effects. Previously, we identified a simple highly cationic peptide derivative of human apolipoprotein E (apoEdp) that(More)
BACKGROUND The APOE genotype has a uniquely strong influence on the outcome of viral infection. The mechanism is unknown, although one possibility is direct inhibition of viral entry into cells. METHODS We have examined the direct anti-infective activity of a peptide analogue of the receptor-binding region of apolipoprotein E (apoE) that is known as "apoE(More)
It is uncertain whether environmental factors contribute to the formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the abnormal features that define the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. We previously proposed that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is a strong risk factor for AD when it is present in the brains of people who possess the type 4 allele(More)
The subcellular location of aluminium is unknown, probably because of difficulties in investigating aluminium biochemistry and the use of varied experimental approaches of uncertain sensitivity. We have studied levels of uptake and the localization of gallium and of aluminium in cultured human neuroblastoma cells treated with soluble metal complexes (mainly(More)
The early events underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain uncertain, although environmental factors may be involved. Work in this laboratory has shown that the combination of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) in brain and carriage of the APOE-ε4 allele of the APOE gene strongly increases the risk of developing AD. The development of AD is thought to(More)
Previous reports have shown that peptides derived from the apolipoprotein E receptor binding region and the amphipathic α-helical domains of apolipoprotein AI have broad anti-infective activity and antiviral activity respectively. Lipoproteins and viruses share a similar cell biological niche, being of overlapping size and displaying similar interactions(More)
Medical device infection remains a major clinical concern. Biocidal compounds have been incorporated into medical device materials ideally to inhibit bacterial colonisation whilst exhibiting relatively low cytotoxicity. We compared the antibacterial activity, anti-biofilm efficacy and cytotoxicity of a novel peptide derivative of human apolipoprotein E(More)
The 18-amino-acid cationic, tryptophan-rich ApoEdpL-W peptide derived from human ApoE apolipoprotein was shown to have antifungal activity against pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus (except C. glabrata). ApoEdpL-W was active against planktonic cells and early-stage biofilms but less active against mature biofilms, possibly because of its affinity for(More)