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Until recently, the only risk factors implicated in noninherited cases of Alzheimer's disease were increasing age, Down's syndrome, and probably, head injury. Having found that herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) is present in the brain of many elderly people, we discovered that it is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease when in the central nervous system(More)
It is uncertain whether environmental factors contribute to the formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the abnormal features that define the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. We previously proposed that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is a strong risk factor for AD when it is present in the brains of people who possess the type 4 allele(More)
BACKGROUND The early events underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain uncertain, although environmental factors may be involved. Work in this laboratory has shown that the combination of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) in brain and carriage of the APOE-epsilon4 allele of the APOE gene strongly increases the risk of developing AD. The development of AD(More)
This paper critically reviews the possibility that infiltration of the brain by pathogens (e.g. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) or Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cp)) acts as a trigger or co-factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The evidence currently available is limited and in some cases inconsistent, but it does justify the need for more vigorous(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reports have shown that peptides derived from the apolipoprotein E receptor binding region and the amphipathic alpha-helical domains of apolipoprotein AI have broad anti-infective activity and antiviral activity respectively. Lipoproteins and viruses share a similar cell biological niche, being of overlapping size and displaying similar(More)
The results of Marques et al (2001) are very surprising in that only one brain specimen was found to be positive for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) in a group of 15 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and only one in 15 age-matched controls. Obviously, therefore, the association of HSV1 with the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein gene (apoE-"4) in AD(More)
Microbicides (biocides) play an important role in the prevention and treatment of infections. While there is currently little evidence for in-use treatment failures attributable to acquired reductions in microbicide susceptibility, the susceptibility of some bacteria can be reduced by sublethal laboratory exposure to certain agents. In this investigation, a(More)
Clinical examination of the ocular surface is commonly carried out after application of sodium fluorescein in both veterinary and medical practice by assessing the resulting 'staining'. Although localized intensely stained regions of the cornea frequently occur after exposure to 'adverse' clinical stimuli, the cell biology underlying this staining is(More)