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The major cholesterol oxidation products in the human circulation are 27-hydroxycholesterol, 24-hydroxycholesterol, and 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol. These oxysterols are formed from cholesterol by specific cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP27, CYP46, and CYP7A, respectively. An additional oxysterol present in concentrations comparable with 7alpha- and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Rifampicin (RIFA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) improve symptoms and biochemical markers of liver injury in cholestatic liver diseases by largely unknown mechanisms. We aimed to study the molecular mechanisms of action of these drugs in humans. METHODS Thirty otherwise healthy gallstone patients scheduled for cholestectomy were(More)
Sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase (CYP 8B1) is a microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in bile acid synthesis that is of critical importance for the composition of bile acids formed in the liver. Thyroidectomy of rats caused a more than twofold increase of CYP8B1 and an almost fourfold increase of the corresponding mRNA levels compared to sham-operated rats.(More)
This investigation describes the expression and interindividual variability in transcript levels of multiple drug efflux systems in the human jejunum and compares the expression profiles in these cells with that of the commonly used Caco-2 cell drug absorption model. Transcript levels of ten-drug efflux proteins of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS There is an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in patients with longstanding, extensive colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Primary sclerosing cholangitis, family history of CRC, mucosal dysplasia and DNA-aneuploidy are other risk factors. Recently, results from animal studies have shown that the bile acid ursodeoxycholic(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Bile acids (BAs) are major regulators of hepatic BA and lipid metabolism but their mechanisms of action in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are still poorly understood. Here we aimed to explore the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in modulating the cross-talk between liver and visceral white(More)
Elevated fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) concentrations have been detected in postmortem organs from alcoholics and patients acutely intoxicated by alcohol, and FAEE have been implicated as mediators of ethanol-induced organ damage. The formation of FAEE is catalyzed by acyl-coenzyme A:ethanol O-acyltransferase (AEAT) and by FAEE synthase, which utilize(More)
Fatty acid ethyl esters have been detected in high concentrations in organs commonly damaged by alcohol abuse and are regarded as being important non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol. The formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) has been ascribed to two enzymic activities, acyl-CoA : ethanol O-acyltransferase (AEAT) and FAEE synthase. In the present(More)
The contribution of hereditary and environmental factors to the pathogenesis of symptomatic gallstone disease is still unclear. We estimated the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors by analyzing a large population of twins. For this purpose, the Swedish Twin Registry was linked with the Swedish inpatient-discharge and causes of death(More)
BACKGROUND Two acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) genes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, have been identified that encode 2 proteins responsible for intracellular cholesterol esterification. METHODS AND RESULTS In this study, immunohistology was used to establish their cellular localization in human liver biopsies. ACAT2 protein expression was confined(More)