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Moderate maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy occurs in both developing and developed countries. In addition to poverty, maternal dieting, teenage pregnancy, and uterine vascular problems in older mothers are causes of decreased fetal nutrition. We evaluated the impact of global 30% maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) on early fetal baboon brain(More)
Knowledge of altered maternal nutrition effects on growth-regulating systems is critical to understanding normal and abnormal fetal development. There are many reports of hepatic fetal IGF system responses to maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) during pregnancy in rodents and sheep but none in nonhuman primates. We determined effects of MNR on the fetal(More)
Decreased maternal nutrient availability during pregnancy induces compensatory fetal metabolic and endocrine responses. Knowledge of cellular changes involved is critical to understanding normal and abnormal development. Several studies in rodents and sheep report increased fetal plasma cortisol and associated increased gluconeogenesis in response to(More)
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are now common ingredients in commercial infant formulas, however, the optimal levels have not been established. Our previous data showed that the current amount of DHA in U.S. term formulas, 0.3%w/w, is insufficient to normalize cerebral cortex DHA to levels in breastfed baboon neonate controls (Diau et(More)
Glucocorticoids have been used for 30 years to accelerate fetal lung maturation in human pregnancy at risk of preterm delivery. Exposure to inappropriate levels of steroid, however, leads to altered maturation of the cardiovascular, metabolic and central nervous systems. The effects of betamethasone on neuronal development and function were determined in(More)
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection caused severe pneumonia and multiorgan dysfunction and had a higher crude fatality rate (around 50% vs. 10%) than SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. To understand the pathogenesis, we studied viral replication, cytokine/chemokine response, and antigen presentation in MERS-CoV-infected(More)
A nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) method was developed for simultaneous assay of three bioactive components (1: cryptotanshinone; 2: tanshinone IIA, and 3: tanshinone I) in Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and in its herbal preparations for the first time. After optimization of separation conditions, a buffer of 250 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate(More)
A study of the tissue depletion of florfenicol (FF) administered intramuscularly twice to swine at a dose rate of 20 mg per kg of body weight at 24 h intervals was carried out. Forty healthy cross swine were treated with the FF injection formulation. Five treated animals were selected randomly to be sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, 17, and 21 days(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin after oral administration of a single dose of tilmicosin base in swine. ANIMALS 10 healthy swine. PROCEDURE Tilmicosin base was administered via stomach tube at a single dose of 20 mg/kg (n = 5) or 40 mg/kg (5). Blood samples were obtained from a jugular vein immediately before and at 10, 20, and(More)
The fetal lung produces and metabolizes prostaglandin (PG) E2. In vitro PGE2 induces surfactant production via E prostaglandin (EP)1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-coupled EP (EP2 and EP4) receptors. Glucocorticoids alter PG function and increase lung function in preterm neonates. We hypothesized that fetal exposure to maternally administered(More)