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The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) closely resembled severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in disease manifestation as rapidly progressive acute pneumonia with multi-organ dysfunction. Using monocyte-derived-dendritic cells (Mo-DCs), we discovered fundamental discrepancies in the outcome of MERS-CoV- and(More)
BACKGROUND Mosquito-borne infectious diseases pose a severe threat to public health in many areas of the world. Current methods for pathogen detection and surveillance are usually dependent on prior knowledge of the etiologic agents involved. Hence, efficient approaches are required for screening wild mosquito populations to detect known and unknown(More)
Knowledge of altered maternal nutrition effects on growth-regulating systems is critical to understanding normal and abnormal fetal development. There are many reports of hepatic fetal IGF system responses to maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) during pregnancy in rodents and sheep but none in nonhuman primates. We determined effects of MNR on the fetal(More)
Neurons controlling appetite are located in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (ARH). Offspring appetite regulation has been shown to be modified by dysregulation of ARH nuclear development. Most ARH developmental studies have been in altricial rodents whose hypothalamic development is predominantly postnatal. In primates including humans, much development of(More)
Glucocorticoids have been used for 30 years to accelerate fetal lung maturation in human pregnancy at risk of preterm delivery. Exposure to inappropriate levels of steroid, however, leads to altered maturation of the cardiovascular, metabolic and central nervous systems. The effects of betamethasone on neuronal development and function were determined in(More)
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection caused severe pneumonia and multiorgan dysfunction and had a higher crude fatality rate (around 50% vs. 10%) than SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. To understand the pathogenesis, we studied viral replication, cytokine/chemokine response, and antigen presentation in MERS-CoV-infected(More)
Moderate maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy occurs in both developing and developed countries. In addition to poverty, maternal dieting, teenage pregnancy, and uterine vascular problems in older mothers are causes of decreased fetal nutrition. We evaluated the impact of global 30% maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) on early fetal baboon brain(More)
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is associated with a mortality rate of >35%. We previously showed that MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) could infect human macrophages and dendritic cells and induce cytokine dysregulation. Here, we further investigated the interplay between human primary T cells and MERS-CoV in disease pathogenesis. Importantly, our(More)
OBJECTIVE Our objective was to determine signaling molecules and apoptosis rate in the term placenta of a baboon model of maternal nutrient reduction (MNR). STUDY DESIGN Female baboons were fed ad libitum for controls (n = 7) or 70% of control baboon diet (MNR; n = 6) from 30-165 days of gestation with necropsy at 165 days of gestation. Placental tissues(More)