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Winter wheat and barley varieties require an extended exposure to low temperatures to accelerate flowering (vernalization), whereas spring varieties do not have this requirement. In this study, we show that in these species, the vernalization gene VRN3 is linked completely to a gene similar to Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). FT induction in the leaves(More)
Mice carrying a mutation in the synaptotagmin I gene were generated by homologous recombination. Mutant mice are phenotypically normal as heterozygotes, but die within 48 hr after birth as homozygotes. Studies of hippocampal neurons cultured from homozygous mutant mice reveal that synaptic transmission is severely impaired. The synchronous, fast component(More)
An algorithm based on wavelet transforms (WT's) has been developed for detecting ECG characteristic points. With the multiscale feature of WT's, the QRS complex can be distinguished from high P or T waves, noise, baseline drift, and artifacts. The relation between the characteristic points of ECG signal and those of modulus maximum pairs of its WT's is(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS We examined the influence of viral load in relation to other risk factors for the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In a community-based study of 15,127 persons in a rural district of Uganda, we identified 415 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and one was initially HIV-1-negative(More)
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides includes the mammalian peptides CRF, urocortin, and urocortin II, as well as piscine urotensin I and frog sauvagine. The mammalian peptides signal through two G protein-coupled receptor types to modulate endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress, as well as a range of peripheral(More)
Myelination increases neuronal conduction velocity through its insulating properties and an unidentified extrinsic effect that increases axonal caliber. Although it is well established that demyelination can cause axonal atrophy, the myelin molecule that regulates axonal caliber is not known. Loss of the structural proteins of compact peripheral nervous(More)
Synaptotagmins (Syts) are brain-specific Ca2+/phospholipid-binding proteins. In hippocampal synapses, Syt I is essential for fast Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis but not for Ca(2+)-independent exocytosis. In vertebrates and invertebrates, Syt may therefore participate in Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic membrane fusion, either by serving as the Ca2+(More)
FGFR2 is a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase that serves as a high affinity receptor for several members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. To explore functions of FGF/FGFR2 signals in development, we have mutated FGFR2 by deleting the entire immunoglobin-like domain III of the receptor. We showed that murine FGFR2 is essential for(More)
Long exposure to cold (vernalization) accelerates flowering in winter cereals, a process regulated by the VRN1 (approximately AP1), VRN2, and VRN3 (approximately FT) vernalization genes. Flowering during the fall is prevented by the VRN2 downregulation of VRN3 and low VRN1 transcription. Vernalization induces VRN1, which is followed by the downregulation of(More)
Allelic loss at the short arm of chromosome 3 is one of the most common and earliest events in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, and is observed in more than 90% of small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs) and in 50-80% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Frequent and early loss of heterozygosity and the presence of homozygous deletions suggested a critical role(More)