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Axons in the cerebral cortex receive synaptic input at the axon initial segment almost exclusively from gamma-aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) axo-axonic cells (AACs). The axon has the lowest threshold for action potential generation in neurons; thus, AACs are considered to be strategically placed inhibitory neurons controlling neuronal output.(More)
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is a major center for spatial navigation and memory. We found that cannabinoid type 1 receptor-expressing GABAergic basket cells selectively innervated principal cells in layer II of the rat MEC that projected outside the hippocampus but avoided neighboring cells that give rise to the perforant pathway to the dentate(More)
Neurogliaform cells in the rat elicit combined GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses on cortical pyramidal cells and establish electrical synapses with various interneuron types. However, the involvement of GABAB receptors in postsynaptic effects of neurogliaform cells on other GABAergic interneurons is not clear. We measured the(More)
A fundamental property of neuronal networks in Ammon's horn is that each area comprises a single glutamatergic cell population and various types of GABAergic neurons. Here we describe an exception to this rule, in the form of granule cells that reside within the CA3 area and function as glutamatergic nonprincipal cells with distinct properties. CA3 granule(More)
Synaptic interactions between neurons of the human cerebral cortex were not directly studied to date. We recorded the first dataset, to our knowledge, on the synaptic effect of identified human pyramidal cells on various types of postsynaptic neurons and reveal complex events triggered by individual action potentials in the human neocortical network. Brain(More)
CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) are not homogeneous but rather can be grouped by molecular, morphological, and functional properties. However, less is known about synaptic sources differentiating PCs. Using paired recordings in vitro, two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in vivo, and computational modeling, we found that parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (PVBCs) evoked(More)
Fast spiking, parvalbumin (PV) expressing hippocampal interneurons are classified into basket, axo-axonic (chandelier), and bistratified cells. These cell classes play key roles in regulating local circuit operations and rhythmogenesis by releasing GABA in precise temporal patterns onto distinct domains of principal cells. In this study, we show that each(More)
Endogenous brain rhythms occurring at various frequencies and associated with distinct behavioral states provide multiscale temporal windows that enable cells to time their spiking activity with high precision, which is thought to be important for the coding of information in neuronal circuits. However, although the selective timing of GABAergic inputs to(More)
The effects of the inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), TDZD-8 and SB 415286, which can substantially reduce the systemic inflammation associated with endotoxic shock in vivo, have now been investigated on the acute colitis provoked by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in the rat. Administration of the GSK-3beta inhibitor TDZD-8(More)
BACKGROUND Different types of carbon nanotubes may represent toxic hazards due to their size distribution and massive surface area. They may adsorb other toxic agents that can consequently be transported into the body. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible genotoxicity of carbon nanotubes. MATERIALS AND METHODS In vivo bacterial(More)