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Axons in the cerebral cortex receive synaptic input at the axon initial segment almost exclusively from gamma-aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) axo-axonic cells (AACs). The axon has the lowest threshold for action potential generation in neurons; thus, AACs are considered to be strategically placed inhibitory neurons controlling neuronal output.(More)
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is a major center for spatial navigation and memory. We found that cannabinoid type 1 receptor-expressing GABAergic basket cells selectively innervated principal cells in layer II of the rat MEC that projected outside the hippocampus but avoided neighboring cells that give rise to the perforant pathway to the dentate(More)
Endogenous brain rhythms occurring at various frequencies and associated with distinct behavioral states provide multiscale temporal windows that enable cells to time their spiking activity with high precision, which is thought to be important for the coding of information in neuronal circuits. However, although the selective timing of GABAergic inputs to(More)
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is predominantly released by local interneurons in the cerebral cortex to particular subcellular domains of the target cells. This suggests that compartmentalized, synapse-specific action of GABA is required in cortical networks for phasic inhibition. However, GABA released at the synaptic cleft diffuses to receptors outside(More)
Synaptic interactions between neurons of the human cerebral cortex were not directly studied to date. We recorded the first dataset, to our knowledge, on the synaptic effect of identified human pyramidal cells on various types of postsynaptic neurons and reveal complex events triggered by individual action potentials in the human neocortical network. Brain(More)
The neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) plays a crucial role in adjusting intracellular Cl(-) concentrations. The lack of KCC2 in the plasma membrane of the axon initial segment (AIS) of pyramidal cells contributes to variable reversal potentials for perisomatic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor-mediated postsynaptic potentials,(More)
CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) are not homogeneous but rather can be grouped by molecular, morphological, and functional properties. However, less is known about synaptic sources differentiating PCs. Using paired recordings in vitro, two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in vivo, and computational modeling, we found that parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (PVBCs) evoked(More)
Neurogliaform cells in the rat elicit combined GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses on cortical pyramidal cells and establish electrical synapses with various interneuron types. However, the involvement of GABAB receptors in postsynaptic effects of neurogliaform cells on other GABAergic interneurons is not clear. We measured the(More)
μ-Opioid receptors (μORs) are selectively expressed on interneurons in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing, basket cells express μORs, but circumstantial evidence suggests that another major, unidentified, GABAergic cell class must also be modulated by μORs. Here we report that the abundant, dendritically targeting,(More)
In male Wistar rats, behavioral and electrophysiological investigations, and blood and brain manganese level determinations, were performed; during 10 weeks treatment with low-dose manganese chloride and a 12 weeks post-treatment period. Three groups of 16 animals each received daily doses of 14.84 and 59.36mg/kg b.w. MnCl(2) (control: distilled water) via(More)