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Grapevines exhibit a wide spectrum of resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (PM), Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr., but little is known about the transcriptional basis of the defense to PM. Our microscopic observations showed that PM produced less hyphal growth and induced more brown-colored epidermal cells on leaves of PM-resistant Vitis aestivalis(More)
INTRODUCTION Ghrelin and cannabinoids stimulate appetite, this effect possibly being mediated by the activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key enzyme in appetite and metabolism regulation. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist rimonabant can block the orexigenic effect of ghrelin. In this study, we have elucidated the(More)
Leptin and insulin have been identified as fuel sensors acting in part through their hypothalamic receptors to inhibit food intake and stimulate energy expenditure. As their intracellular signaling converges at the PI3K pathway, we directly addressed the role of phosphatidylinositol3,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated (PIP3-mediated) signals in hypothalamic(More)
Targeted deletion of the gene encoding the neuronal and neuroendocrine secreted polypeptide VGF (nonacronymic) produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse. Consistent with this phenotype, VGF mRNA levels are regulated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in response to fasting. To gain insight into the site(s) and mechanism(s) of action of VGF, we further(More)
TRH is a tripeptide amide that functions as a neurotransmitter but also serves as a neurohormone that has a critical role in the central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons involved in this neuroendocrine process are located in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and secrete TRH into the pericapillary(More)
OBJECTIVE Blockade of the CB1 receptor is one of the promising strategies for the treatment of obesity. Although antagonists suppress food intake and reduce body weight, the role of central versus peripheral CB1 activation on weight loss and related metabolic parameters remains to be elucidated. We therefore specifically assessed and compared the respective(More)
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a critical role in obesity development. The pharmacological blockade of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB(1)) has been shown to reduce body weight and to alleviate obesity-related metabolic disorders. An unsolved question is at which anatomical level CB(1) modulates energy balance and the mechanisms involved in its(More)
To determine whether the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2), the principal central nervous system enzyme converting T(4) to biologically active T(3), is regulated in tanycytes by immune activation, D2 activity was measured in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) 4, 12, and 24 h after administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and compared with D2(More)
Hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): synthesizing neurons reside in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and are the central regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. TRH synthesis and release from these neurons are primarily under negative feedback regulation by thyroid hormone. Under certain conditions such as(More)
The similar-sized double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements present in vegetatively compatible strains of Fusarium poae were always genetically related, while vegetatively incompatible strains of the fungus contained either homologous or non-homologous dsRNAs of the same size. Electron microscopic observations revealed the co-existence of encapsidated and naked(More)