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For monitoring chitinase expression during mycoparasitism of Trichoderma harzianum in situ, we constructed strains containing fusions of green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the 5'-regulatory sequences of the T. harzianum nag1 (N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase-encoding) and ech42 (42-kDa endochitinase-encoding) genes. Confronting these strains with Rhizoctonia(More)
Leptin and insulin have been identified as fuel sensors acting in part through their hypothalamic receptors to inhibit food intake and stimulate energy expenditure. As their intracellular signaling converges at the PI3K pathway, we directly addressed the role of phosphatidylinositol3,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated (PIP3-mediated) signals in hypothalamic(More)
Grapevines exhibit a wide spectrum of resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (PM), Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr., but little is known about the transcriptional basis of the defense to PM. Our microscopic observations showed that PM produced less hyphal growth and induced more brown-colored epidermal cells on leaves of PM-resistant Vitis aestivalis(More)
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus has an essential role in mediating the homeostatic responses of the thyroid axis to fasting by altering the sensitivity of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to feedback regulation by thyroid hormone. Because agouti-related protein (AGRP), a leptin-regulated,(More)
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has an important action on hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons to regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and adrenal axis, respectively. To elucidate the mechanisms by which CART mediates its effect on TRH and CRH neurons, we(More)
Targeted deletion of the gene encoding the neuronal and neuroendocrine secreted polypeptide VGF (nonacronymic) produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse. Consistent with this phenotype, VGF mRNA levels are regulated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in response to fasting. To gain insight into the site(s) and mechanism(s) of action of VGF, we further(More)
Axons containing cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) densely innervate the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Recent data from our laboratory demonstrated that CART-immunoreactive (IR) neurons of arcuate nucleus origin innervate the PVN, but comprise only a portion of the total CART-IR input to this region of the brain. To identify(More)
To identify regions in the hypothalamus involved in refeeding and their regulation by alpha-MSH, adult rats were subjected to a 3-d fast, and 2 h after refeeding, the distribution of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons was elucidated. Compared with fed and fasted animals, a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells was identified(More)
The reductions in circulating levels of leptin, insulin, and glucose with fasting serve as important homeostasis signals to neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus that synthesize neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AGRP) and alpha-MSH/cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript. Because the central administration of leptin is capable of(More)
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently discovered anorexigenic peptide. In rodents, CART inhibits food intake and is expressed in the anorexigenic alpha-MSH- but not in the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and agouti-related protein (AGRP)-synthesizing neurons of the arcuate nucleus. To understand whether CART is similarly(More)