Crystal Vaughan

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BACKGROUND Increased immune sensitivity to gluten has been reported in schizophrenia. However, studies are inconsistent about this association. METHODS The sample of 471 individuals included 129 with recent-onset psychosis, 191 with multi-episode schizophrenia, and 151 controls. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA antibodies to gliadin and to tissue(More)
Immune system factors including complement pathway activation are increasingly linked to the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Complement protein, C1q, binds to and helps to clear immune complexes composed of immunoglobulins coupled to antigens. The antigenic stimuli for C1q activation in schizophrenia are not known. Food sensitivities(More)
OBJECTIVES Increased immune sensitivity to dietary gluten proteins has been reported in schizophrenia but has not been studied in bipolar disorder. In this study, we examine the levels of antibody reactivity to gliadin, deamidated gliadin, and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in individuals with bipolar disorder and compare these levels to those in individuals(More)
Increased levels of antibodies to gliadin, which is derived from the wheat protein gluten, have been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally the levels of antibody reactivity to gliadin in acute mania. The sample included 60 individuals assessed during a hospital stay for acute mania, 39 at a(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that the glutamatergic system is involved in the pathophysiology of mania. Antibodies to the NR2 subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor have been shown to adversely affect glutamate functioning. METHODS We measured serum antibodies to the NR2 peptide of the NMDA receptor in 60 individuals with different subtypes(More)
BACKGROUND Some individuals with bipolar disorder have cognitive deficits even when euthymic. In previous studies, we found an association between elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, and reduced cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. This issue has not been examined in bipolar disorder. METHODS We measured the levels of(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the prevalence of cigarette smoking and the quantity of cigarettes consumed by individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and by those with no psychiatric disorder in the period 1999-2011. METHODS A total of 991 individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or no psychiatric illness provided information about(More)
Immune factors are implicated in normal brain development and in brain disorder pathogenesis. Pathogen infection and food antigen penetration across gastrointestinal barriers are means by which environmental factors might affect immune-related neurodevelopment. Here, we test if gastrointestinal inflammation is associated with schizophrenia and therefore,(More)
OBJECTIVES Increased rates of infection with Toxoplasma gondii have been found in individuals with schizophrenia as compared to control groups but this issue has not been studied in mania. METHODS We measured immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM class antibodies to T. gondii in 57 individuals with mania who were assessed at up to three time-points. We also(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the effect of elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and exposure to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on the severity of cognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia. METHODS We measured the levels of CRP and of antibodies to HSV-1 in serum samples from 588 individuals with schizophrenia by enzyme immunoassay(More)