Crystal A. Shanley

Learn More
The HN878 strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is regarded as "hypervirulent" due to its rapid growth and reduced survival of infected mice when compared with other clinical isolates. This property has been ascribed due to an early increase in type I IFNs and a failure to generate TH1-mediated immunity, induced by a response to an unusual cell wall phenolic(More)
Chronic lung disease as a result of Mycobacterium abscessus is an emerging infection in the United States. We characterized the lung immune responses in mice and guinea pigs infected with M. abscessus. C57BL/6 and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice challenged with a low-dose aerosol (LDA) of M. abscessus did not develop an infection. However, when challenged with(More)
The bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the world's most successful pathogens, a situation that is aggravated by the fact that the existing vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, is not effective in adults. As with any vaccine, the purpose of giving BCG vaccination is to establish a long-lived state of memory immunity, but whether this is(More)
The typical host response to infection of humans and some animals by M. tuberculosis is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species generating inflammatory cells into discrete granulomas, which frequently develop central caseous necrosis. In previous studies we showed that infection of immunologically naïve guinea pigs with M. tuberculosis leads to(More)
The purpose of this study was 2-fold. First, we evaluated standard chemotherapy in the guinea pig model of tuberculosis to determine if this animal species could productively be used for this purpose. Second, given the similarities of the pathology of disease in guinea pigs and humans, we wished to evaluate additional parameters, including magnetic(More)
The development of granulomatous inflammation with caseous necrosis is an important but poorly understood manifestation of tuberculosis in humans and some animal models. In this study we measured the byproducts of oxidative stress in granulomatous lesions as well as the systemic antioxidant capacity of BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated guinea pigs(More)
Pulmonary tuberculosis in guinea pigs is an extremely useful model for drug and vaccine testing due to the fact that its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. Progress in this field has been hindered because the tools necessary to undertake a complete immunological analysis of the guinea pig cellular immune response against(More)
Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) currently remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis. In this study, we used a newly described flow cytometric technique to monitor changes in cell populations accumulating in the lungs and lymph nodes of naïve and vaccinated guinea pigs challenged by low-dose aerosol infection(More)
BACKGROUND Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is an epidemiological risk factor for tuberculosis, although the biological basis has not been elucidated. METHODS We exposed C57BL/6 mice to CS for 14 weeks and examined their ability to control an aerosol infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman. RESULTS CS-exposed mice had more M. tuberculosis isolated(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic pulmonary disease and skin/soft tissue infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) of the Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus-massiliense group is an emerging health problem worldwide. Moreover, the cure rate for the infections this group causes is low despite aggressive treatment. Post-surgical outbreaks that reached epidemic(More)