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The present study deals with the effect of chronic toluene inhalation (30,000-40,000 ppm in air, 15 min/day for 30 days) that induced abnormal behavior states resembling the serotonin syndrome in rats: resting tremor, hindlimb abduction, Straub tail, head weaving and rigidity. The head weaving latencies were significantly decreased when assessed at 15 and(More)
In single cell experiments, the characterization of the responses of medial thalamic neurons to noxious and nonnoxious stimulation was made to examine the effects of two substances involved in pain, morphine and 5-HT, and the action of one pain suppressor mechanism, dorsal raphe stimulation. Single cell activity was recorded in urethane anesthetized rats.(More)
The spontaneous activity of 117 pineal units was recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. The pineal units exhibited a wide range of firing rates of which 50% were on average slower than 14 spikes per second. Superior cervical ganglion (SCG) stimulation was studied in 76 pineal units; this stimulation caused excitation in 55% of the units. Microiontophoretic(More)
Alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN) treatment in humans induces anorexic effects. However, the mechanisms and sites of action are unknown. Rats implanted with an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannula for local injection, and semi-microelectrodes in the lateral hypothalamic (LH) area for neuronal recording were used. The animals were kept in metabolic cages, and(More)
The opiate abstinence syndrome represents a fundamental feature of the addictive process. The present study demonstrated that: 1) recombinant leukocyte A Interferon (alpha-IFN) injection prior to chronic morphine treatment reduces addiction liability; and 2) alpha-IFN and not human gamma-IFN injection to morphine dependent rats significantly modifies the(More)
The present investigation determined whether an immunomodulator agent modified the central nervous system activity as measured behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Two types of interferons (IFNs), alpha (alpha) and gamma (gamma), were applied locally (microiontophoretically) into various regions of the rat brain simultaneously with single neuron recording(More)
The present study investigated the mechanisms of melatonin-induced inhibition of the ileal smooth muscle contraction. Rat isolated ileal smooth muscle strips were stimulated in an organ bath using carbachol (CAR) or potassium chloride (KCl) depolarization. Under these conditions, melatonin produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of muscle contraction(More)
The properties of local application of glutamate, morphine and serotonin in the dorsal raphe (DR) area and the effects of DR electrical stimulation on the spontaneous activity and on the nociceptive responses of 135 parafascicularis (PF) neurons were studied. It was observed that local glutamate application within the DR exerts an effect upon the(More)
Melatonin, a hormone produced and released by the pineal gland is also synthesized by cells of the gastrointestinal wall, where it might be a local regulator of gut functions. In this study, we investigated the possible role of melatonin as a modulator of the enteric nervous system. Intracellular recordings were made in neurons of the submucosal plexus from(More)
In mammals, there is an underlying mechanism that dictates the organism's biological functions and daily activity schedule, known as circadian rhythms, which play a major role in maintaining steady metabolism, homeostasis, and immunity. Limited research has been done investigating the effects of continuous opiate administration on the circadian rhythm(More)