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We report two experiments designed to investigate the potential use of vibrotactile warning signals to present spatial information to car drivers. Participants performed an attention-demanding rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) monitoring task. Meanwhile, whenever they felt a vibrotactile stimulus presented on either their front or back, they had to(More)
This study was designed to assess the potential benefits of using spatial auditory warning signals in a simulated driving task. In particular, the authors assessed the possible facilitation of responses (braking or accelerating) to potential emergency driving situations (the rapid approach of a car from the front or from behind) seen through the windshield(More)
This study was designed to investigate the possibility that driver responses to potential front-to-rear-end collision situations could be facilitated by implementing vibrotactile warning signals that indicate the likely direction of the potential collision. In a car following scenario in a driving simulator, participants drove along a rural road while(More)
We assessed the influence ofmultisensory interactions on the exogenous orienting of spatial attention by comparing the ability of auditory, tactile, and audiotactile exogenous cues to capture visuospatial attention under conditions of no perceptual load versus high perceptual load. In Experiment 1, participants discriminated the elevation of visual targets(More)
OBJECTIVE A driving simulator study was conducted in order to assess the relative utility of unimodal auditory, unimodal vibrotactile, and combined audiotactile (i.e., multisensory) in-car warning signals to alert and inform drivers of likely front-to-rear-end collision events in a situation modeled on real-world driving. BACKGROUND The implementation of(More)
Despite a wealth of literature on discrimination thresholds for displacement, force magnitude, stiffness, and viscosity, there is currently a lack of data on our ability to discriminate force directions. Such data are needed in designing haptic rendering algorithms where force direction, as well as force magnitude, are used to encode information such as(More)
The authors report an experiment in which twenty-five participants discriminated force vectors presented along five directions (up, left, right, diagonally up left, diagonally up right). The force vectors were presented with a three degree-of-freedom force-feedback device. A three-interval one-up three-down adaptive procedure was used. The five reference(More)
—The last few years have seen many exciting developments in the area of tactile and multisensory interface design. One of the most rapidly moving practical application areas for these findings is in the development of warning signals and information displays for drivers. For instance, tactile displays can be used to awaken sleepy drivers, to capture the(More)
The potential use of non-visual warning signals to present spatial information to car drivers has been successfully demonstrated in several recent studies (Ho & Spence, submitted, in preparation; Ho, Tan, & Spence, submitted). Among the three types of spatial warning signals investigated (namely auditory, visual, and vibrotactile), spatial vibrotactile cues(More)