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BACKGROUND Human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide by 36% during the past 200 years. One third of all anthropogenic CO(2) has been absorbed by the oceans, reducing pH by about 0.1 of a unit and significantly altering their carbonate chemistry. There is widespread concern that these changes are altering marine habitats(More)
Phytoplankton size structure is key for the ecology and biogeochemistry of pelagic ecosystems, but the relationship between cell size and maximum growth rate (μ(max) ) is not yet well understood. We used cultures of 22 species of marine phytoplankton from five phyla, ranging from 0.1 to 10(6) μm(3) in cell volume (V(cell) ), to determine experimentally(More)
We studied the effects of elevated CO 2 concentrations (0.03% vs. 0.1%) on light absorption, membrane permeability, growth, and carbon fixation under photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Susceptibility of photosynthesis to UVR was estimated using biological weighting(More)
It is well known that UV radiation can cause deleterious effects to the physiological performance, growth and species assemblages of marine primary producers. In this review we describe the range of interactions observed between these impacts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) with other environmental factors such as the availability of(More)
Anthropogenically induced global climate change has important implications for marine ecosystems with unprecedented ecological and economic consequences. Climate change will include the simultaneous increase of temperature and CO 2 concentration in oceans. However, experimental manipulations of these factors at the community scale are rare. In this study,(More)
The effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on inhibition of photosynthesis was studied in two species of marine picoplankton with different carbon concentration mechanisms: Nannochloropsis gaditana Lubian possesses a bicarbonate uptake system and Nannochloris atomus Butcher a CO2 active transport system. Biological weighting functions (BWFs) for inhibition(More)
The sensitivity of photosynthesis to ultraviolet radiation (UV) was assessed for phytoplankton assemblages in two Swiss lakes, pre-alpine Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstättersee) and alpine Lake Cadagno, using both in situ and laboratory incubations. Biological weighting functions for UV inhibition of photosynthesis (BWFs) were determined in the laboratory using(More)
UVR exposure is known to cause developmental defects in a variety of organisms including aquatic species but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this work we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model system to characterize the UVR effects on fish species. Larval viability was measured for embryos exposed to several UVR(More)
Background: Human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide by 36% during the past 200 years. One third of all anthropogenic C0 2 has been absorbed by the oceans, reducing pH by about 0.1 of a unit and significantly altering their carbonate chemistry. There is widespread concern that these changes are altering marine habitats(More)
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