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Using J774 macrophages, the intracellular activities of gentamicin, azithromycin, telithromycin, ciprofloxa-cin, moxifloxacin, and oritavancin (LY333328) against Staphylococcus aureus (strain ATCC 25923) have been quantitatively assessed in a 24-h model. S. aureus was positively localized in phagolysosomes by confocal and electron microscopy, and(More)
The pharmacodynamic properties governing the activities of antibiotics against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus are still largely undetermined. Sixteen antibiotics of seven different pharmacological classes (azithromycin and telithromycin [macrolides]; gentamicin [an aminoglycoside]; linezolid [an oxazolidinone]; penicillin V, nafcillin, ampicillin, and(More)
The intracellular pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oritavancin (LY333328) were studied in cultured cells. Oritavancin was avidly accumulated by J774 and THP-1 macrophages and rat fibroblasts and to a lesser extent by LLC-PK1 and Caco-2 cells. In J774 macrophages, the level of accumulation reached a plateau (at 370-fold the extracellular(More)
This article establishes the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters that are important when considering the intracellular activity of antibiotics. Generally speaking, the main classes of antibiotics seem to share globally the same properties against extracellular and intracellular organisms. The specific cellular pharmacokinetic properties may modulate(More)
Antibiotic efflux pumps expressed in eukaryotic cells can decrease the intracellular accumulation of the corresponding drugs and therefore impair their activity against intracellular bacteria. We have investigated whether verapamil (an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein) and gemfibrozil (an inhibitor of multidrug resistance proteins (MRP) and other organic anion(More)
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) gradually lose their cognitive competence, particularly memory, and the ability to perform daily life tasks. Neuropsychological rehabilitation is used to improve cognitive functions by facilitating memory performance through the use of external aids and internal strategies. The effect of neuropsychological(More)
Here, we compare ciprofloxacin to levofloxacin, garenoxacin, and moxifloxa-cin for transport. At 4 mg/liter, an apparent steady state in accumulation was reached after 30 to 60 min for all quinolones but to quite different levels (approximately 3, 5, 10, and 16 fold). Accumulation of ciprofloxacin was increased (to about 16 to 20 fold) by ATP depletion,(More)
OBJECTIVES Quinolones accumulate in eukaryotic cells and show activity against a large array of intracellular organisms, but systematic studies aimed at examining their pharmacodynamic profile against intracellular bacteria are scarce. The present work aims at comparing intracellular-to-extracellular activities in this context. METHODS We assessed the(More)
The influence of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (verapamil [VE], cyclosporine [CY], and GF120918 [GF]) on the cell handling of macrolides (erythromycin [ERY], clarithromycin [CLR], roxithromycin [ROX], azithromycin [AZM], and telithromycin [TEL]) was examined in J774 murine macrophages. The net influx rates of AZM and TEL were increased from 2- to 3.5-fold in(More)
Immunochromatographic (IC) tests may play an important role in the future diagnosis of parasitic diseases because of their speed and simplicity of use. A recently developed test to detect Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica was evaluated. Microscopy and PCR were the “gold standard” reference techniques and the results of this(More)