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Early in animal development, gradients of secreted morphogenic molecules, such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnt and TGFbeta/Bmp family members, regulate cell proliferation and determine the fate and phenotype of the target cells by activating well-characterized signalling pathways, which ultimately control gene transcription. Shh, Wnt and TGFbeta/Bmp signalling(More)
Tangential migration from the basal telencephalon to the cortex is a highly directional process, yet the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we show that the basal telencephalon contains a repulsive activity for tangentially migrating cells, whereas the cerebral cortex contains an attractive activity. In vitro experiments demonstrate that the(More)
In non-mammalian vertebrates, the relatively homogeneous population of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) differentiates and projects entirely to the contralateral side of the brain under the influence of sonic hedgehog (Shh). In mammals, by contrast, there are two different RGC types: the Zic2-positive ipsilateral projecting and the Isl2-positive contralateral(More)
The distribution of gene expression domains during development constitutes a novel tool for the identification of distinct brain regions. This is particularly useful in the brain of amphibians where cell migration is very limited and most neurons organize in a periventricular layer. Here we report the expression pattern of NKX2-1 protein in the developing(More)
In the present study, the ontogenesis of nitrergic neurons has been studied in the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl by means of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunohistochemistry. Embryonic and larval stages were studied. Except for the olfactory fibers and glomeruli, both methods were equally suitable(More)
Optic nerve (ON) oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are generated under the influence of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the preoptic area from where they migrate to colonise the entire nerve. The molecular events that control this migration are still poorly understood. Recent studies suggested that Shh is often used by the same cell population to control(More)
The present study is the first of a series on descending supraspinal pathways in amphibians in which hodologic and developmental aspects are studied. Representative species of anurans (the green frog, Rana perezi, and the clawed toad, Xenopus laevis), urodeles (the Iberian ribbed newt, Pleurodeles waltl), and gymnophionans (the Mexican caecilian, Dermophis(More)
Immunohistochemical studies with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine, and noradrenaline have revealed that the spinal cord of anuran, urodele, and gymnophionan (apodan) amphibians is abundantly innervated by catecholaminergic (CA) fibers and terminals. Because intraspinal cells occur in all three orders of amphibians CA, it is unclear to what(More)
The presence of adrenomedullin-like immunoreactive (AMi) cell bodies and fibers in the hypothalamus and hypophysis of the amphibians Rana perezi (anuran) and Pleurodeles waltl (urodele) was examined by immunohistochemistry. A large population of AMi neurons was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of both species. Differently, AMi cells in the magnocellular(More)
Morphogen signalling among cells is one of the most important mechanisms underlying the progressive patterning of embryos. Members of the hedgehog (Hh), wingless (Wnt), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta), and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) families of extracellular signalling molecules act as morphogens. Recent studies have demonstrated that members(More)