Cristina Ramos Hernández

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The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an specialized epithelium lying in the interface between the neural retina and the choriocapillaris where it forms the outer blood-retinal barrier (BRB). The main functions of the RPE are the following: (1) transport of nutrients, ions, and water, (2) absorption of light and protection against photooxidation, (3)(More)
BACKGROUND For patients that are expected to survive for longer, the risk of complications combined with the need for more vacuum drainage bottles have become barriers to the placement of indwelling pleural catheter (IPC), since these could increase costs. OBJETIVES The objective of the current article is to determine the cost and efficiency of treating(More)
PURPOSE Cortistatin (CST), a neuropeptide with strong structural and functional similarities to somatostatin, is abundant in the vitreous fluid, and it is decreased in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The aims of the present study were to explore whether the retina produces CST, and to compare its expression between diabetic and nondiabetic(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity are associated with magnesium deficiency. We aimed to determine whether the presence of type 2 diabetes and the degree of metabolic control are related to low serum magnesium levels in obese individuals. METHODS A) Case-control study: 200 obese subjects [50 with T2DM (cases) and 150 without diabetes (controls)](More)
P roliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) remains the leading cause of blindness among working-age individuals in developed countries (1). Diabetic macular edema (DME), another important event that occurs in diabetic retinopathy, is more frequent in type 2 than type 1 diabetes (2). Whereas PDR is the most common sight-threatening le-sion in type 1 diabetes,(More)
PURPOSE Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been classically considered a microcirculatory disease of the retina. However, before any microcirculatory abnormalities can be detected in ophthalmoscopic examination, retinal neurodegeneration is already present. The aim of the study was to analyze proapoptotic and survival signaling in the neuroretinas of diabetic(More)
Iron is an essential ion for life, playing a central role in many metabolic processes. The most important property of free iron is its capacity to be reversibly oxidized and reduced, but at same time this make it highly pro-oxidant molecule. In this regard, iron is able to generate powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS). For this reason, careful control on(More)
Retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Somatostatin (SST) is an endogenous neuroprotective peptide that is downregulated in the diabetic eye. The aim of the study was to test the usefulness of topical administration of SST in preventing retinal neurodegeneration. For this purpose, rats with(More)
Measuring the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is becoming more frequent in the analyses that are routinely done in optometric practice. This measurement is generally done in far vision, and the observation distance and its effects are not considered to significantly alter this function. Among these effects we should point out the accommodation of the(More)
BACKGROUND To characterize the sequential events that are taking place in retinal neurodegeneration in a murine model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes (db/db mouse). METHODS C57BLKsJ-db/db mice were used as spontaneous type 2 diabetic animal model, and C57BLKsJ-db/+ mice served as the control group. To assess the chronological sequence of the abnormalities(More)