Cristina R Gutiérrez

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Surface antigen negative hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was evaluated in Venezuela, by molecular characterization of blood samples positive for antibodies to core antigen (anti-HBc) and negative for surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors (residual infections). HBV DNA was found in 11/258 samples (4.3%), and was significantly associated with high levels(More)
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is highly prevalent in Latin America, including Venezuela. Subgenotype IA seems to circulate in an almost exclusive fashion, except in Brazil. The aim of this study was the molecular characterization of the HAV infection in Venezuela, in order to characterize the circulating strains and to analyze the presence of(More)
INTRODUCTION Co-infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) has been associated with prolonged survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of GBV-C infection among HIV-1-infected patients in Venezuela, and to determine the effects of the co-infection on the levels of relevant(More)
Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational(More)
The aim of this study was the analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity in Venezuela, and the characterization of variants other than subtype B. A total of 425 HIV isolates, collected between 2003 and 2008, were analyzed. The sequence of at least one genomic region (Pol, Env, Vif, or Nef ) was available for all of them and at least two(More)
OBJECTIVE Silent infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) occurs in the absence of serological markers for the virus. This type of occult infection is generally chronic, asymptomatic, and associated with low levels of viral replication. This study determined the presence of HBV DNA in the sera of blood donors who were negative for serological markers that were(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of mutations and polymorphisms associated with drug resistance among HIV-1-infected patients in proviral DNA and viral RNA extracted from PBMCs and plasma, respectively, in 34 HIV-1-infected patients (11 naive and 23 receiving HAART). Additional drug resistance mutations were found in only one compartment(More)
An in-house, low-cost method was developed to determine the genotypic resistance of immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates. All 179 Venezuelan isolates analysed belonged to subtype B. Primary drug resistance mutations were found in 11% of 63 treatment-naïve patients. The prevalence of resistance in isolates from 116 HIV-positive patients under(More)
The preexistence of mutations to integrase inhibitors in HIV-1-infected Venezuelan patients was evaluated. The integrase region of the HIV-1 genome was amplified by nested-PCR and sequenced in 57 isolates from both naive (n = 24) and treated patients who received protease and/or reverse transcriptase inhibitors (PI and RTI, n = 33), but were never exposed(More)
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