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GDNF is a potent neurotrophic factor that protects catecholaminergic neurons from toxic damage and induces fiber outgrowth. However, the actual role of endogenous GDNF in the normal adult brain is unknown, even though GDNF-based therapies are considered promising for neurodegenerative disorders. We have generated a conditional GDNF-null mouse to suppress(More)
Accumulating evidences suggest that neuroinflammation is involved in the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Several studies have shown that intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide induces inflammation in the substantia nigra leading to death of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells. To better understand how the inflammatory(More)
Oxidative damage to dopaminergic nigrostriatal (DNS) neurons plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key cytoprotective enzyme that provides NADPH, the major source of the reducing equivalents of a cell. Mutations of this enzyme are the most common enzymopathies worldwide. We have(More)
Increased neuroinflammatory reaction is frequently observed during normal brain aging. However, a direct link between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration during aging has not yet been clearly shown. Here, we have characterized the age-related hippocampal inflammatory processes and the potential relation with hippocampal neurodegeneration. The mRNA(More)
Neuroinflammation and protein accumulation are characteristic hallmarks of both normal aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship between these factors in neurodegenerative processes is poorly understood. We have previously shown that proteasome inhibition produced higher neurodegeneration in aged than in young rats,(More)
The SDHD gene (subunit D of succinate dehydrogenase) has been shown to be involved in the generation of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. Loss of heterozygosity of the normal allele is necessary for tumor transformation of the affected cells. As complete SdhD deletion is lethal, we have generated mouse models carrying a "floxed" SdhD allele and either(More)
Dysfunctions of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) have been proposed to be involved in the aetiology and/or progression of several age-related neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanisms linking proteasome dysfunction to cell degeneration are poorly understood. We examined in young and aged rat hippocampus the activation of the unfolded protein(More)
KEY POINTS Neurotransmitter release requires a tight coupling between synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis with dynamin being a key protein in that process. We used imaging techniques to examine the time course of endocytosis at mouse motor nerve terminals expressing synaptopHluorin, a genetically encoded reporter of the synaptic vesicle cycle. We(More)
To elucidate whether density of cells could contribute to the extent of microglial activation, we performed in vitro assays using three different densities of N13 microglia stimulated with LPS. Our results showed that induction of pro-inflammatory factors as TNF-α and iNOS was directly related to cell density, meanwhile the induction of the(More)
The aim of this study was to analyze the function and expression of tachykinins, tachykinin receptors, and neprilysin (NEP) in the mouse uterus. A previous study showed that the uterotonic effects of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB) in estrogen-treated mice were mainly mediated by the tachykinin NK1 receptor. In the present work,(More)