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As a preliminary to transducing human melanoma cells with lymphokine genes, we sought for constitutive gene expression and production of eight interleukins, tumour necrosis factors and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in 19 human melanoma cell lines. Conversion of RNA into cDNA by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were(More)
PURPOSE Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been isolated from human tumors, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The aims of this study were the immunobiological characterization of GBM CSCs and the assessment of whether these cells represent suitable targets for immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN GBM CSC lines and their fetal bovine serum (FBS)-cultured(More)
In this study we tested the hypothesis that loss of T cell signaling molecules in metastatic melanoma patients' T cells may affect differently T cell subsets characterized by distinct TCR variable regions. By a two-color immunofluorescence technique, expression of zeta-chain, lck, and ZAP-70 was evaluated in CD3+ T cells and in three representative T cell(More)
Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe,(More)
Tumor cell populations have been recently proposed to be composed of two compartments: tumor-initiating cells characterized by a slow and asymmetrical growth, and the "differentiated" cancer cells with a fast and symmetrical growth. Cancer stem cells or cancer-initiating cells (CICs) play a crucial role in tumor recurrence. The resistance of CICs to drugs(More)
This review critically discusses data on immunology of colorectal cancer, starting from pathology and molecular biology, and then considering the molecular characterisation of colon cancer antigens and the clinical trials of immunotherapy. A careful evaluation of histopathological studies on intra-epithelial infiltration by T cells in primary tumours,(More)
Cells with "stemness" and tumor-initiating properties have been isolated from both hematological and solid tumors. These cells denominated as cancer stem cells (CSCs), representing rare populations within tumors, have the ability to metastasize and are resistant to standard therapies and immunotherapy. Heterogeneity and plasticity in the phenotype of CSCs(More)
PURPOSE To facilitate development of innovative immunotherapy approaches, especially for treatment concepts exploiting the potential benefits of personalized therapy, there is a need to develop and validate tools to identify patients who can benefit from immunotherapy. Despite substantial effort, we do not yet know which parameters of antitumor immunity to(More)
The NKG2D receptor is expressed by human NK, gammadelta T and alpha/beta T lymphocytes and its engagement results in the stimulation of effector cells. We evaluated the role of NKG2D receptor in anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) immune response. The cell surface expression of stress-inducible NKG2D ligands MICA/B (MHC class I-related chain molecules A/B) and(More)
To determine whether T-cell-receptor (TCR) usage by T cells recognizing a defined human tumor antigen in the context of the same HLA molecule is conserved, we analyzed the TCR diversity of autologous HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clones derived from five patients with metastatic melanoma and specific for the common melanoma antigen(More)