Cristina Giachetti

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In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of(More)
Accurate and sensitive quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA has been invaluable as a marker for disease prognosis and for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 disease. The first generation of commercially available HIV-1 RNA tests were optimized to detect the predominant HIV-1 subtype found in North America and Europe, subtype B.(More)
The risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission by transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be relatively low, and testing of blood donors is often not done or is done relatively poorly. To re-examine this attitude, we identified HBV chronically infected blood donors from a major hospital in Ghana with a range of hepatitis B surface antigen(More)
BACKGROUND It is important to characterize viral dynamics in early hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to further our understanding of viral pathogenesis and the potential for secondary transmission in acute infection through blood transfusion or other routes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Serial units given by 77 source plasma donors who had evolved from HCV(More)
Various nucleic acid assays have been developed and implemented for diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The high-throughput, semiautomated assays described here were developed to provide a method suitable for screening plasma specimens for the presence of HIV-1 and HCV(More)
The structural requirements of the hydrophobic domain contained in poliovirus polypeptide 3AB were studied by using a molecular genetic approach in combination with an in vitro biochemical analysis. We report here the generation and analysis of deletion, insertion, and amino acid replacement mutations aimed at decreasing the hydrophobic character of the(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA for E6 and E7 mRNA detection on clinical specimens to identify women with cervical precancer and cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We evaluated a prototype assay that collectively detects oncogenes E6/E7 mRNA for 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes on a sample of liquid cytology specimens (n=531),(More)
The effect of two lysosomotropic agents, NH4Cl and chloroquine, on the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replicative cycle was studied. When the drugs were present throughout the viral replicative cycle, an important inhibition of viral RNA synthesis and virus production was detected. The inhibition of viral RNA synthesis was maximal when the drugs were(More)
BACKGROUND Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is widely used in conjunction with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing in cervical cancer screening programs to improve the detection of high-grade lesions. While HPV DNA test sensitivity is good, an improvement in specificity is desired. Detection of HPV mRNA may improve specificity. The APTIMA HPV Assay detects the(More)
While the present generation of serology-based assays has significantly decreased the number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections acquired by transfusion, the possibility of infected donations escaping detection still exists. The average seronegative viremic window duration during which immunological assays(More)