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Accurate and sensitive quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA has been invaluable as a marker for disease prognosis and for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 disease. The first generation of commercially available HIV-1 RNA tests were optimized to detect the predominant HIV-1 subtype found in North America and Europe, subtype B.(More)
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of(More)
Various nucleic acid assays have been developed and implemented for diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The high-throughput, semiautomated assays described here were developed to provide a method suitable for screening plasma specimens for the presence of HIV-1 and HCV(More)
While the present generation of serology-based assays has significantly decreased the number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections acquired by transfusion, the possibility of infected donations escaping detection still exists. The average seronegative viremic window duration during which immunological assays(More)
The structural requirements of the hydrophobic domain contained in poliovirus polypeptide 3AB were studied by using a molecular genetic approach in combination with an in vitro biochemical analysis. We report here the generation and analysis of deletion, insertion, and amino acid replacement mutations aimed at decreasing the hydrophobic character of the(More)
BACKGROUND It is important to characterize viral dynamics in early hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to further our understanding of viral pathogenesis and the potential for secondary transmission in acute infection through blood transfusion or other routes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Serial units given by 77 source plasma donors who had evolved from HCV(More)
A molecular genetic analysis has been combined with an in vitro biochemical approach to define the functional interactions required for nucleotidyl protein formation during poliovirus RNA synthesis. A site-directed lesion into the hydrophobic domain of a viral membrane protein produced a mutant virus that is defective in RNA synthesis at 39 degrees C. The(More)
BACKGROUND A case of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis associated with transfusion of blood that did not react when tested for WNV by minipool (MP) nucleic acid testing (NAT) is described. A Nebraska man developed clinical encephalitis 13 days after surgery and transfusion of 26 blood components. Antibody testing confirmed WNV infection. An investigation(More)
The risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission by transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be relatively low, and testing of blood donors is often not done or is done relatively poorly. To re-examine this attitude, we identified HBV chronically infected blood donors from a major hospital in Ghana with a range of hepatitis B surface antigen(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA for E6 and E7 mRNA detection on clinical specimens to identify women with cervical precancer and cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We evaluated a prototype assay that collectively detects oncogenes E6/E7 mRNA for 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes on a sample of liquid cytology specimens (n=531),(More)