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Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation. Cognitive dysfunction in these patients is correlated with reduced dendritic branching and complexity, along with fewer spines of abnormal shape that characterize the cortical neuronal profile of DS. DS phenotypes are caused by the disruptive effect of specific trisomic genes.(More)
Down's syndrome (DS) is a major cause of mental retardation, hypotonia and delayed development. Murine models of DS carrying large murine or human genomic fragments show motor alterations and memory deficits. The specific genes responsible for these phenotypic alterations have not yet been defined. DYRK1A, the human homolog of the Drosophila minibrain gene,(More)
Most studies on TCF7L2 SNP variants in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) focus on a role of the encoded transcription factor TCF4 in β cells. Here, a mouse genetics approach shows that removal of TCF4 from β cells does not affect their function, whereas manipulating TCF4 levels in the liver has major effects on metabolism. In Tcf7l2(-/-) mice, the(More)
The availability of the recently published DNA sequence of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) is a landmark contribution that will have an immediate impact on the study of the role of specific genes to Down syndrome (DS). Trisomy 21 or DS is the only autosomal aneuploidy that is not lethal in the fetal or early postnatal period. DS phenotypes show variable(More)
Motor deficits are among the most frequent impairments in Down syndrome (DS), but their neuropathological and molecular bases remain elusive. Here we investigate the motor profile of transgenic mice overexpressing Dyrk1a, Tg(Dyrk1a)1Cff (hereafter TgDyrk1a), a candidate gene hypothesized to cause some of the neurological defects associated with DS. We have(More)
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common cause of mental retardation. Many neural phenotypes are shared between DS individuals and DS mouse models; however, the common underlying molecular pathogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. Using a transchromosomic model of DS, we show that a 30%-60% reduced expression of Nrsf/Rest (a key regulator of pluripotency and(More)
Accumulating evidence has suggested that neurotrophins participate in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We have developed transgenic mice overexpressing the full-length neurotrophin-3 receptor TrkC (TgNTRK3) in the central nervous system. TgNTRK3 mice show increased anxiety-like behavior and enhancement of panic reaction in the mouse defense test(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) play a pivotal role in neural development and synaptic plasticity, as well as in neurological disease. Since NMDARs exert their function at the cell surface, their density in the plasma membrane is finely tuned by a plethora of molecules that regulate their production, trafficking, docking and(More)
Since the discovery in the 1970s that dendritic abnormalities in cortical pyramidal neurons are the most consistent pathologic correlate of mental retardation, research has focused on how dendritic alterations are related to reduced intellectual ability. Due in part to obvious ethical problems and in part to the lack of fruitful methods to study neuronal(More)
Histological brain studies of individuals with DS have revealed an aberrant formation of the cerebral cortex. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that oleic acid acts as a neurotrophic factor and induces neuronal differentiation. In order to characterize the effects of oleic acid in a cellular model of DS, immortalized cell lines derived from the(More)