Cristin M. Galardi

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Bile acids repress the transcription of cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in bile acid biosynthesis. Although bile acids activate the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the mechanism underlying bile acid-mediated repression of CYP7A1 remained unclear. We have used a potent, nonsteroidal FXR ligand to show that FXR induces(More)
Repression of gene transcription by nuclear receptors is mediated by interactions with co-repressor proteins such as SMRT and N-CoR, which in turn recruit histone deacetylases to the chromatin. Aberrant interactions between nuclear receptors and co-repressors contribute towards acute promyelocytic leukaemia and thyroid hormone resistance syndrome. The(More)
Oct4 plays an essential role in maintaining the inner cell mass and pluripotence of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The expression of Oct4 is regulated by the proximal enhancer and promoter in the epiblast and by the distal enhancer and promoter at all other stages in the pluripotent cell lineage. Here we report that the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1, which is(More)
A potent, selective, orally active LXR agonist was identified from focused libraries of tertiary amines. GW3965 (12) recruits the steroid receptor coactivator 1 to human LXRalpha in a cell-free ligand-sensing assay with an EC(50) of 125 nM and profiles as a full agonist on hLXRalpha and hLXRbeta in cell-based reporter gene assays with EC(50)'s of 190 and 30(More)
The orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has been reported to play a role in bile acid biosynthesis and reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we examined the role of LRH-1 in the regulation of the apolipoprotein AI (APOAI) gene. Using RNA interference and adenovirus-mediated overexpression, we show that LRH-1 directly regulates(More)
A cell-free assay was developed for the orphan nuclear receptor LXRalpha that measures the ligand-dependent recruitment of a peptide from the steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1) to the nuclear receptor. Using this ligand-sensing assay (LiSA), the structural requirements for activation of the receptor by oxysterols and related compounds were studied. The(More)
Natural ligands for nuclear receptors are believed to activate gene transcription by causing dissociation of corepressors and promoting the association of coactivator proteins. Using multiple biophysical techniques, we find that peptides derived from one of the nuclear receptor interacting motifs of the corepressors nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and(More)
Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide(More)
A cocrystal structure of T1317 (3) bound to hLXRbeta was utilized in the design of a series of substituted N-phenyl tertiary amines. Profiling in binding and functional assays led to the identification of LXR modulator GSK9772 ( 20) as a high-affinity LXRbeta ligand (IC 50 = 30 nM) that shows separation of anti-inflammatory and lipogenic activities in human(More)
The liver X receptors alpha and beta (LXRalpha and LXRbeta) have been shown to play important roles in lipid homeostasis in liver and macrophages, however, their function in adipose tissue is not well defined. Both LXRs are highly expressed in fat, and the expression of LXRalpha increases during adipogenesis. Furthermore, LXRalpha expression is induced by(More)