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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
During skeletal myogenesis, genomic reprogramming toward terminal differentiation is achieved by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes to muscle-specific loci. The relative contribution of extracellular signaling cascades in targeting these enzymes to individual genes is unknown. Here we show that the differentiation-activated p38 pathway targets the(More)
A potential tumor suppressor gene, STK11 , encoding a serine threonine kinase, has recently been identified on chromosome 19p13. Germ-line mutations of this gene have been found in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). To further investigate the relevance of STK11 mutations in PJS, we analyzed its coding sequence in nine patients and identified two(More)
During muscle regeneration, the mechanism integrating environmental cues at the chromatin of muscle progenitors is unknown. We show that inflammation-activated MKK6-p38 and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1)-induced PI3K/AKT pathways converge on the chromatin of muscle genes to target distinct components of the muscle transcriptosome. p38 alpha/beta kinases(More)
Roberts syndrome (RS) is a rare disorder characterized by tetraphocomelia and several other clinical features. Cells from RS patients exhibit characteristic premature separation of heterochromatic region of many chromosomes and abnormalities in cell cycle. Mutations in the ESCO2 gene have recently been identified in 20 RS families. We performed mutational(More)
FoxO proteins are an evolutionarily conserved subfamily of transcription factors involved in tumor suppression, regulation of energy metabolism and development in several tissues, and are mainly regulated by phosphorylation-dependent nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling. The transcriptional activity of FoxO3A, one of the four members of the family, is further(More)
Mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) were associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and, recently, were related to severe forms of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Both genetic and phenotypic overlap between DCM and ARVC was observed; molecular pathomechanisms leading to the cardiac phenotypes caused by LMNA mutations are not yet(More)
So far, somatic mutations of the PTEN gene have been found in several different neoplasms but not in colorectal tumours. As exons 7 and 8 of the PTEN coding sequence contain an (A)(6)repeat and mononucleotide repeat sequences are targets for mutations in tumours with microsatellite instability (MI), we screened a panel of sporadic colorectal tumours(More)
The protein product of the retinoblastoma (RB) gene is necessary for the completion of the muscle differentiation program and for myogenic basic helix-loop-helix-dependent transcription. In fact, in addition to induction and maintenance of permanent cell cycle withdrawal through negative regulation of E2F-responsive genes involved in proliferation, pRb also(More)
Fusion of undifferentiated myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes is a prerequisite for developmental myogenesis and postnatal muscle growth. We report that deacetylase inhibitors favor the recruitment and fusion of myoblasts into preformed myotubes. Muscle-restricted expression of follistatin is induced by deacetylase inhibitors and mediates myoblast(More)