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Over recent decades, the average ethanol concentration of wine has increased, largely due to consumer preference for wine styles associated with increased grape maturity; sugar content increases with grape maturity, and this translates into increased alcohol content in wine. However, high ethanol content impacts wine sensory properties, reducing the(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and grape juice are 'natural companions' and make a happy wine marriage. However, this relationship can be enriched by allowing 'wild' non-Saccharomyces yeast to participate in a sequential manner in the early phases of grape must fermentation. However, such a triangular relationship is complex and can only be taken to 'the next(More)
The wine sector is actively seeking strategies and technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol; however, commercial wine yeasts have very similar ethanol yields. We(More)
High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at(More)
Problematic fermentations are common in the wine industry. Assimilable nitrogen deficiency is the most prevalent cause of sluggish fermentations and can reduce fermentation rates significantly. A lack of nitrogen diminishes a yeast's metabolic activity, as well as the biomass yield, although it has not been clear which of these two interdependent factors is(More)
Osmotic stress constitutes a major bacterial stress factor in the soil and during industrial fermentation. In this paper, we quantified the metabolic response, in terms of metabolic flux redistribution, of a lysine-overproducing strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum grown under continuous culture, to gradually increasing osmolality. Oxygen and carbon dioxide(More)
Mycolic acids are vital components of the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are required for viability and virulence. While mycolic acid biosynthesis is studied extensively, components involved in mycolate transport remain unidentified. We investigated the role of large membrane proteins encoded by mmpL genes in mycolic acid(More)
Inorganic nitrogen salts, and to a growing extent organic nitrogen preparations, are widely used to ameliorate a nitrogen deficiency in wine fermentation, but the impact of nitrogen supplementation on perceived wine sensory profile is essentially unknown. Supplementation of a low nitrogen Chardonnay grape juice with either ammonium nitrogen or combined(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved a highly efficient strategy for energy generation which maximizes ATP energy production from sugar. This adaptation enables efficient energy generation under anaerobic conditions and limits competition from other microorganisms by producing toxic metabolites, such as ethanol and CO(2). Yeast fermentative and flavor(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Hemodialysis patients (HD) display high rates of cardiac diseases and mortality. In chronic kidney disease, vascular injury leads to coronary artery disease, heart failure, and stroke. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements are currently widely used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to study the efficacy of(More)