Cristian Varela

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Problematic fermentations are common in the wine industry. Assimilable nitrogen deficiency is the most prevalent cause of sluggish fermentations and can reduce fermentation rates significantly. A lack of nitrogen diminishes a yeast's metabolic activity, as well as the biomass yield, although it has not been clear which of these two interdependent factors is(More)
Over recent decades, the average ethanol concentration of wine has increased, largely due to consumer preference for wine styles associated with increased grape maturity; sugar content increases with grape maturity, and this translates into increased alcohol content in wine. However, high ethanol content impacts wine sensory properties, reducing the(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and grape juice are 'natural companions' and make a happy wine marriage. However, this relationship can be enriched by allowing 'wild' non-Saccharomyces yeast to participate in a sequential manner in the early phases of grape must fermentation. However, such a triangular relationship is complex and can only be taken to 'the next(More)
Osmotic stress diminishes cell productivity and may cause cell inactivation in industrial fermentations. The quantification of metabolic changes under such conditions is fundamental for understanding and describing microbial behavior during bioprocesses. We quantified the gradual changes that take place when a lysine-overproducing strain of Corynebacterium(More)
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesises a variety of volatile aroma compounds during wine fermentation. In this study, the influence of fermentation temperature on (1) the production of yeast-derived aroma compounds and (2) the expression of genes involved in aroma compounds’ metabolism (ADH1, PDC1, BAT1, BAT2, LEU2, ILV2, ATF1, ATF2, EHT1 and IAH1)(More)
The wine sector is actively seeking strategies and technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol; however, commercial wine yeasts have very similar ethanol yields. We(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has evolved a highly efficient strategy for energy generation which maximizes ATP energy production from sugar. This adaptation enables efficient energy generation under anaerobic conditions and limits competition from other microorganisms by producing toxic metabolites, such as ethanol and CO(2). Yeast fermentative and flavor(More)
Mycolic acids are vital components of the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are required for viability and virulence. While mycolic acid biosynthesis is studied extensively, components involved in mycolate transport remain unidentified. We investigated the role of large membrane proteins encoded by mmpL genes in mycolic acid(More)
The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent(More)
Problematic fermentations are commonplace and cause wine industry producers substantial economic losses through wasted tank capacity and low value final products. Being able to predict such fermentations would enable enologists to take preventive actions. In this study we modeled sugar uptake kinetics and coupled them to a previously developed(More)