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Increased phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR)2 by protein kinase A (PKA) at the phosphoepitope encompassing Ser2808 has been advanced as a central mechanism in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. In this scheme, persistent activation of the sympathetic system during chronic stress leads to PKA(More)
The basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) functions in the maintenance of cellular electrolyte and volume homeostasis. NKCC1-deficient (Nkcc1(-/-)) mice were used to examine its role in cardiac function and in the maintenance of blood pressure and vascular tone. Tail-cuff measurements demonstrated that awake Nkcc1(-/-) mice had significantly(More)
Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) is a subfamily of ion channels that are involved in sensing taste, ambient temperature, low pH, osmolarity, and chemical ligands. Melastatin 1/TRPM1, the founding member, was originally identified as melanoma metastasis suppressor based on its expression in normal pigment cells in the skin and the eye but not(More)
BACKGROUND Hypoxic niches in solid tumors harbor therapy-resistant cells. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) have been designed to overcome this resistance and, to date, have begun to show clinical efficacy. However, clinical HAPs activity could be improved. In this study, we sought to identify non-pharmacological methods to acutely exacerbate tumor hypoxia(More)
The relative expression of alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoforms found in vascular smooth muscle is developmentally regulated and under hormonal and neurogenic control. The physiological roles of these isoforms in vascular function are not known. It has been postulated that the alpha(1)-isoform serves a "housekeeping" role, whereas the(More)
Two alpha-isoforms of the Na+-K+-ATPase are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The alpha 1-isoform is proposed to serve a cytosolic housekeeping role, whereas the alpha 2-isoform modulates Ca2+ storage via coupling to the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in a subsarcolemmal compartment. To evaluate the ramifications of this proposed interaction,(More)
The rapid contraction/relaxation cycles of phasic smooth muscles necessitates intracellular calcium cycling at a more rapid rate than that of tonic smooth muscles. Recent studies suggest that sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling is an important determinant of portal vein phasic contractions. We evaluated the importance and role of phospholamban, a(More)
Luminal acidification is important for the maturation of secretory granules, yet little is known regarding the regulation of pH within them. A pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was targeted to secretory granules in RIN1046-38 insulinoma cells by using a construct in which the EGFP gene was preceded by the nucleotide sequence for human growth(More)
As the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the compartment where disulfide bridges in secreted and cell surface proteins are formed, the disturbance of its redox state has profound consequences, yet regulation of ER redox potential remains poorly understood. To monitor the ER redox state in live cells, several fluorescence-based sensors have been developed.(More)
Melanocortin receptors can be used as biomarkers to detect and possibly treat melanoma. To these ends, molecules bearing one, two, or three copies of the weakly binding ligand MSH(4) were attached to scaffolds based on phloroglucinol, tripropargylamine, and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane by means of the copper-assisted azide-alkyne cyclization. This synthetic(More)