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We explored the consequences for learning through interaction with an educational microworld called Electric Field Hockey (EFH). Like many mi-croworlds, EFH is intended to help students develop a qualitative understanding of the target domain, in this case, the physics of electrical interactions. Through the development and use of a computer model that(More)
Educators are increasingly acknowledging that practical problems in computer science demand basic competencies in experimentation and data analysis. However, little effort has been made towards explicitly identifying those empirical concepts and skills needed by computer scientists, nor in developing methods of integrating those concepts and skills into CS(More)
Empirical skills are playing an increasingly important role in the computing profession and our society. But while traditional computer science curricula are effective in teaching software design skills, little attention has been paid to developing empirical investigative skills such as forming testable hypotheses, designing experiments, critiquing their(More)
We study student understanding of the use of a tree structure in the context of an introductory web development course. In particular, we analyze student answers as they use a tree structure to construct file references in web pages. More fundamentally, our study initiates a bottom-up study of computational thinking by identifying the computational thinking(More)
Salivary biomarker discovery requires identification of analytes with high discriminatory capacity to distinguish disease from health, including day-to-day variations that occur in analyte levels. In this study, seven biomarkers associated with inflammatory and tissue destructive processes of periodontal disease were investigated. In a prospective cohort(More)
The pathophysiology of burning mouth disorder (BMD) is not clearly understood, but central neuropathic mechanisms are thought to be involved. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiology associated with BMD by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Areas of brain activation following thermal stimulation of the trigeminal(More)