Craig R White

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1. Time and energy are key currencies in animal ecology, and judicious management of these is a primary focus for natural selection. At present, however, there are only two main methods for estimation of rate of energy expenditure in the field, heart rate and doubly labelled water, both of which have been used with success; but both also have their(More)
The relationship between mammalian basal metabolic rate (BMR, ml of O(2) per h) and body mass (M, g) has been the subject of regular investigation for over a century. Typically, the relationship is expressed as an allometric equation of the form BMR = aM(b). The scaling exponent (b) is a point of contention throughout this body of literature, within which(More)
Body size and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate, and the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of animals ranging in size from unicells to mammals has been thought to be proportional to body mass (M) raised to the power of three-quarters for over 40 years. However, recent evidence from rigorously selected datasets suggests that this is not the(More)
The importance of size as a determinant of metabolic rate (MR) was first suggested by Sarrus and Rameaux over 160 years ago. Max Rubner's finding of a proportionality between MR and body surface area in dogs (in 1883) was consistent with Sarrus and Rameaux's formulation and suggested a proportionality between MR and body mass (Mb) raised to the power of(More)
The form of the relationship between the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass (M) of mammals has been at issue for almost seven decades, with debate focusing on the value of the scaling exponent (b, where BMR is proportional to M(b)) and the relative merits of b= 0.67 (geometric scaling) and b= 0.75 (quarter-power scaling). However, most analyses are(More)
A classic example of ecophysiological adaptation is the observation that animals from hot arid environments have lower basal metabolic rates (BMRs, ml O2min-1) than those from non-arid (luxuriant) ones. However, the term 'arid' conceals within it a multitude of characteristics including extreme ambient temperatures (Ta, degrees C) and low annual net primary(More)
Over the past few years, acceleration-data loggers have been used to provide calibrated proxies of energy expenditure: the accelerometry technique. Relationships between rate of oxygen consumption and a derivation of acceleration data termed "overall dynamic body acceleration" (ODBA) have now been generated for a range of species, including birds, mammals,(More)
The controversial relationship between body mass and basal metabolic rate in animals revolves around two questions: what is the allometric scaling exponent and what is the functional basis for it? For mammals, the first question could be resolved if measurements from all 4600 extant species were available, but this study shows that data for only 150(More)
An important element in the measurement of energy budgets of free-living animals is the estimation of energy costs during locomotion. Using humans as a particularly tractable model species, we conducted treadmill experiments to test the validity of tri-axial accelerometry loggers, designed for use with animals in the field, to estimate rate of oxygen(More)
The evolutionary causes of variation in metabolic rate within and among species are a topic of enduring interest. Variation between individuals is the raw material on which natural selection acts, and so recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies that examine the consequences of inter-individual differences in metabolic rate for organismal(More)