6Ralf K Heilmann
6Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah
6Edward S Boyden
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The breadth of genomic diversity found among organisms in nature allows populations to adapt to diverse environments. However, genomic diversity is difficult to generate in the laboratory and new phenotypes do not easily arise on practical timescales. Although in vitro and directed evolution methods have created genetic variants with usefully altered(More)
  • Amy S Chuong, Mitra L Miri, Volker Busskamp, Gillian A C Matthews, Leah C Acker, Andreas T Sørensen +16 others
  • 2014
Optogenetic inhibition of the electrical activity of neurons enables the causal assessment of their contributions to brain functions. Red light penetrates deeper into tissue than other visible wavelengths. We present a red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red(More)
Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology of neurons is a gold-standard technique for high-fidelity analysis of the biophysical mechanisms of neural computation and pathology, but it requires great skill to perform. We have developed a robot that automatically performs patch clamping in vivo, algorithmically detecting cells by analyzing the temporal sequence(More)
The surface topography of thin, transparent materials is of interest in many areas. Some examples include glass substrates for computer hard disks, photomasks in the semiconductor industry, flat panel displays, and x-ray telescope optics. Some of these applications require individual foils to be manufactured with figure errors that are a small fraction of a(More)
The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on Constellation-X will require thousands of large gratings with very exacting tolerances. Two types of grating geometries have been proposed. In-plane gratings have low ruling densities (∼ 500 l/mm) and very tight flatness and assembly tolerances. Off-plane gratings require much higher ruling densities (∼ 5000(More)
The success of using thin substrates in various fields has urged researchers to further study the possibilities of improving the technology for future applications. For example, the high surface-area-to-weight ratio and strength of sheet glass allow flat-panel display technology to result in high-definition televisions that can be hung on walls like(More)
The proposed Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on the Constellation–X mission is designed to provide high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical sources. Two types of reflection grating geometries have been proposed for the RGS. In-plane gratings have relatively low-density rulings (∼ 500 lines/mm) with lines perpendicular to the plane of(More)
—In this work we consider nano-scale communication using bacterial populations as transceivers. We demonstrate using a microfluidic test-bed and a population of genetically engineered Escherichia coli bacteria serving as the communication receiver that a simple modulation like on-off keying (OOK) is indeed achievable, but suffers from very poor data-rates.(More)