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The breadth of genomic diversity found among organisms in nature allows populations to adapt to diverse environments. However, genomic diversity is difficult to generate in the laboratory and new phenotypes do not easily arise on practical timescales. Although in vitro and directed evolution methods have created genetic variants with usefully altered(More)
Optogenetic inhibition of the electrical activity of neurons enables the causal assessment of their contributions to brain functions. Red light penetrates deeper into tissue than other visible wavelengths. We present a red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red(More)
Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology of neurons is a gold-standard technique for high-fidelity analysis of the biophysical mechanisms of neural computation and pathology, but it requires great skill to perform. We have developed a robot that automatically performs patch clamping in vivo, algorithmically detecting cells by analyzing the temporal sequence(More)
The surface topography of thin, transparent materials is of interest in many areas. Some examples include glass substrates for computer hard disks, photomasks in the semiconductor industry, flat panel displays, and x-ray telescope optics. Some of these applications require individual foils to be manufactured with figure errors that are a small fraction of a(More)
We present nanoNS3, a network simulator for modeling Bacterial Molecular Communication (BMC) networks. nanoNS3 is built atop the Network Simulator 3 (ns-3). nanoNS3 is designed to achieve the following goals: 1) accurately and realistically model real world BMC, 2) maintain high computational efficiency, 3) allow newly designed protocols to be implemented(More)
Patch clamp is the main technique for measuring electrical properties of individual cells. Since its discovery in 1976 by Neher and Sakmann, patch clamp has been instrumental in broadening our understanding of the fundamental properties of ion channels and synapses in neurons. The conventional patch-clamp method requires manual, precise positioning of a(More)
BACKGROUND Anemia, or low blood hemoglobin (Hgb) levels, afflicts 2 billion people worldwide. Currently, Hgb levels are typically measured from blood samples using hematology analyzers, which are housed in hospitals, clinics, or commercial laboratories and require skilled technicians to operate. A reliable, inexpensive point-of-care (POC) Hgb test would(More)
The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on Constellation-X will require thousands of large gratings with very exacting tolerances. Two types of grating geometries have been proposed. In-plane gratings have low ruling densities (∼ 500 l/mm) and very tight flatness and assembly tolerances. Off-plane gratings require much higher ruling densities (∼ 5000(More)
Thrombosis is the pathological formation of platelet aggregates which occlude blood flow causing stroke and heart attack-the leading causes of death in developed nations. Instrumentation for diagnosing and exploring treatments for pathological platelet aggregation thus has the potential for major clinical impact. Most current thrombosis methods focus on(More)