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Cell death is, perhaps paradoxically, essential for life. This is particularly so for multicellular organisms, where cell death plays crucial roles in regulating embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immune function, tumor suppression, and infection resistance. Much of what is known about cell death has been developed through studies in the last two(More)
The present study evaluates immunogenicity and protection potency of a codon-optimized GRA1 DNA vaccine, wild type GRA1 DNA vaccine and an adjuvanted recombinant GRA1 protein vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice against lethal toxoplasmosis. Of the three GRA1 vaccines tested, the recombinant GRA1 protein vaccine results reveal significant increase in immune(More)
As a vital second messenger in the activation of lymphocytes, the divalent cation Ca(2+) plays numerous roles in adaptive immune responses. Importantly, Ca(2+) signaling is essential for T cell activation, tolerance of self-antigens, and homeostasis. Supporting the essential role of Ca(2+) signaling in T cell biology, the Ca(2+) regulated protein(More)
We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct(More)
Two-photon (2P) microscopy is utilized to reveal cellular dynamics and interactions deep within living, intact tissues. Here, we present a method for live-cell imaging in the murine spinal cord. This technique is uniquely suited to analyze neural precursor cell (NPC) dynamics following transplantation into spinal cords undergoing neuroinflammatory(More)
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