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Mice lacking the perforin gene were generated by using targeted gene disruption in embryonal stem cells. When infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), perforin-less (-/-) mice showed clear signs of having mounted an immune response based on activation of CD8 T cells but were unable to clear the LCMV infection. This failure to eliminate virus(More)
Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) and caspase-8 (casp8) are vital intermediaries in apoptotic signaling induced by tumor necrosis factor family ligands. Paradoxically, lymphocytes lacking FADD or casp8 fail to undergo normal clonal expansion following antigen receptor cross-linking and succumb to caspase-independent cell death upon activation. Here(More)
Myonuclear apoptosis is an early event in the pathology of dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse. However, events that initiate apoptosis in muscular dystrophy are unknown, and whether elimination of apoptosis can ameliorate subsequent muscle wasting remains a major question. We have tested the hypothesis that cytotoxic T-lymphocytes(More)
It has long been known that apoptosis is vital to the generation and maintenance of proper adaptive immune function. An example is the essential requirement for apoptotic signaling during the generation of self-tolerant lymphocytes: the apoptotic death of B and T cells with overt autoreactivity is essential to central tolerance. More recently, the(More)
Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is a death domain containing cytoplasmic adapter molecule required for the induction of apoptosis by death receptors. Paradoxically, FADD also plays a crucial role in the development and proliferation of T cells. Using T cells from mice expressing a dominant negative form of FADD (FADDdd), activation with anti-TCR Ab and(More)
The thymus is an organ vital to proper T cell development, and the regulation of cell survival and death contributes significantly to its efficient function. Vital to many of the developmental processes that occur in the thymus, control over cell survival and death is orchestrated by several signaling processes. In this review, we focus on the regulation of(More)
Cell death is, perhaps paradoxically, essential for life. This is particularly so for multicellular organisms, where cell death plays crucial roles in regulating embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immune function, tumor suppression, and infection resistance. Much of what is known about cell death has been developed through studies in the last two(More)
Cytotoxic T cells secrete perforin to kill virus-infected cells. In this study we show that perforin also plays a role in immune regulation. Perforin-deficient (perf -/-) mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) contained greater numbers of antiviral T cells compared to persistently infected +/+ mice. The enhanced expansion(More)
Identification of signaling pathways downstream of Abl tyrosine kinase may increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and suggest strategies to improve clinical treatment of the disease. By combining the use of a phosphospecific antibody recognizing a substrate motif of serine/threonine kinases with bioinformatics,(More)
Perforin is a cytolytic mediator produced by killer lymphocytes, and is stored in and released by cytoplasmic granules. The protein is partially homologous to the terminal components of the membrane attack complex of complement and produces pores of up to 20 nm in diameter on target membranes. Its genomic and protein structures have recently been unraveled,(More)