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In modeling particle transport through a medium, the path of a particle behaves as a transient Markov Chain. We are interested in characteristics of the particle's movement conditional on its starting state which take the form of a \score" accumulated with each transition. Importance sampling is an essential variance reduction technique in this setting, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate feasibility, safety, and efficacy of overnight closed-loop insulin delivery in free-living youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overnight closed loop was evaluated at home by 16 pump-treated adolescents with type 1 diabetes aged 12-18 years. Over a 3-week period, overnight insulin delivery was directed by a(More)
I n a 6-month randomized trial of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in children 4–9 years of age with type 1 diabetes (1), the DirecNet Study Group reported no difference in change in A1C between the CGM and usual care groups, although parents expressed high satisfaction with use of CGM. In a 6-month post-trial phase, the CGM group continued to use CGM(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether immediate initiation of treatment at the time of a clinically isolated syndrome in patients at high risk for clinically definite multiple sclerosis alters disease course over 10 years. DESIGN Prospective follow-up study. SETTING Twenty-four Controlled High-Risk Subjects Avonex Multiple Sclerosis Prevention Study (CHAMPS)(More)
BACKGROUND Closed-loop systems link continuous glucose measurements to insulin delivery. We aimed to establish whether closed-loop insulin delivery could control overnight blood glucose in young people. METHODS We undertook three randomised crossover studies in 19 patients aged 5-18 years with type 1 diabetes of duration 6.4 years (SD 4.0). We compared(More)
Long-term survival and improved neuropsychological function have occurred in selected children with Hurler syndrome (MPS I H) after successful engraftment with genotypically matched sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, because few children have HLA-identical siblings, the feasibility of unrelated donor (URD) BMT as a vehicle for adoptive(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the safety and efficacy of overnight closed loop delivery of insulin (artificial pancreas) with conventional insulin pump therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes. DESIGN Two sequential, open label, randomised controlled crossover, single centre studies. SETTING Clinical research facility. PARTICIPANTS 24 adults (10 men, 14 women)(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated the safety and efficacy of closed-loop basal insulin delivery during sleep and after regular meals and unannounced periods of exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve adolescents with type 1 diabetes (five males; mean age 15.0 [SD 1.4] years; HbA1c 7.9 [0.7]%; BMI 21.4 [2.6] kg/m(2)) were studied at a clinical research facility(More)
PURPOSE To explore the correlation between optical coherence tomography (OCT) and stereoscopic fundus photographs (FP) for the assessment of retinal thickening (RT) in diabetic macular edema (DME) within a clinical trial. METHODS OCT, FP, and best corrected visual acuity (VA) measurements were obtained in both eyes of 263 participants in a trial comparing(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. DESIGN Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal(More)