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Extracellular matrix remodeling has been proposed as one mechanism by which proximal pulmonary arteries stiffen during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although some attention has been paid to the role of collagen and metallomatrix proteins in affecting vascular stiffness, much less work has been performed on changes in elastin structure-function(More)
Developing clinical work suggests that vascular stiffening plays a role in the progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH), while recent studies in animal models of hypoxic PH have found significant proximal vascular stiffening in the diseased population. Here, we develop and validate a minimally invasive, clinically realizable method to estimate the local(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease with significant morbidity and mortality. At the macroscopic level, disease progression is observed as a complex interplay between mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular stiffness, arterial size, and flow. Wall shear stress (WSS) is known to(More)
Although accurate measurement of velocity profiles, multiple velocity vectors, and shear stress in arteries is important, there is still no easy method to obtain such information in vivo. We report on the utility of combining ultrasound contrast imaging with particle image velocimetry (PIV) for noninvasive measurement of velocity vectors. This method (echo(More)
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is often concomitant with aortic dilatation, aneurysm, and dissection. This valve lesion and its complications may affect positional and temporal wall shear stress (WSS), a parameter reported to regulate transcriptional events in vascular remodeling. Thus, this pilot study seeks to determine if the WSS in the ascending aorta(More)
Noninvasive, easy-to-use and accurate measurements of wall shear stress (WSS) in human blood vessels have always been challenging in clinical applications. Echo particle image velocimetry (Echo PIV) has shown promise for clinical measurements of local hemodynamics and wall shear rate. Thus far, however, the method has only been validated under simple flow(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is the current standard for evaluating reactivity in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, PVR measures only the mean component of right ventricular afterload and neglects pulsatile effects. We recently developed and validated a method to measure pulmonary vascular input impedance, which(More)
Shape-memory materials have been proposed in biomedical device design due to their ability to facilitate minimally invasive surgery and recover to a predetermined shape in vivo. Use of the shape-memory effect in polymers is proposed for cardiovascular stent interventions to reduce the catheter size for delivery and offer highly controlled and tailored(More)
Clinical imaging methods are highly effective in the diagnosis of vascular pathologies, but they do not currently provide enough detail to shed light on the cause or progression of such diseases, and would be hard pressed to foresee the outcome of surgical interventions. Greater detail of and prediction capabilities for vascular hemodynamics and arterial(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown previously that input impedance of the pulmonary vasculature provides a comprehensive characterization of right ventricular afterload by including compliance. However, impedance-based compliance assessment requires invasive measurements. Here, we develop and validate a noninvasive method to measure pulmonary artery (PA) compliance(More)