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Increased autophagic vacuoles (AVs) occur in injured or degenerating neurons, under both developmental and pathological situations. Although regulation of starvation-induced autophagy has been extensively studied, less is known about autophagic responses to pathological damage. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) produces(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a median survival of 15 months. The average incidence rate of GBM is 3.19/100,000 population, and the median age of diagnosis is 64 years. Incidence is higher in men and individuals of white race and non-Hispanic ethnicity. Many genetic and(More)
DMT1 has four names, transports as many as eight metals, may have four or more isoforms and carries out its transport for multiple purposes. This review is a start at sorting out these multiplicities. A G185R mutation results in diminished gastrointestinal iron uptake and decreased endosomal iron exit in microcytic mice and Belgrade rats. Comparison of(More)
BRAF rearrangements and BRAF V600E point mutations are recurring events in pediatric low-grade gliomas. However, their clinical significance, including possible interactions between these markers and other glioma biomarkers, is unclear. In this study a retrospective cohort of 198 pediatric low-grade gliomas (including 40 treated with adjuvant therapy) was(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons; however, the signaling pathways that mediate this dendrite-promoting activity have not been previously characterized. Here we report studies of the signaling events that regulate the growth of these afferent processes. We find that Smad1 is expressed in sympathetic(More)
Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) co-opt the neuronal high affinity glucose transporter, GLUT3, to withstand metabolic stress. We investigated another mechanism critical to brain metabolism, mitochondrial morphology, in BTICs. BTIC mitochondria were fragmented relative to non-BTIC tumor cell mitochondria, suggesting that BTICs increase mitochondrial(More)
Two isoforms of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) (Nramp2 and DCT1) are encoded by two mRNA species, one of which contains an iron response element (IRE) motif in the 3'-noncoding region. The subcellular distribution of the two isoforms of DMT1 is distinct, and the -IRE species accumulates in the nucleus of neuronal or neuronal-like cells. Reverse(More)
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme isoforms 1 (IDH1) and 2 (IDH2) have been identified in many adult astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. These mutations are targeted to specific codons (e.g. R132 in IDH1 and R172 in IDH2), making assays to detect them in clinical specimens feasible. We describe a simple and accurate molecular assay for detection(More)
Whole genome analyses have facilitated the discovery of clinically relevant genetic alterations in a variety of diseases, most notably cancer. A prominent example of this was the discovery of mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) in a sizeable proportion of gliomas and some other neoplasms. Herein the normal functions of these enzymes, how(More)
At least nine neurodegenerative disorders are caused by expansion of polyglutamine repeats in various genes. This expansion induces the formation of nuclear inclusions (NI) within various cell types. In this study, we developed a model for polyglutamine diseases using primary cultures of sympathetic neurons from the superior cervical ganglia of prenatal rat(More)