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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons; however, the signaling pathways that mediate this dendrite-promoting activity have not been previously characterized. Here we report studies of the signaling events that regulate the growth of these afferent processes. We find that Smad1 is expressed in sympathetic(More)
Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) co-opt the neuronal high affinity glucose transporter, GLUT3, to withstand metabolic stress. We investigated another mechanism critical to brain metabolism, mitochondrial morphology, in BTICs. BTIC mitochondria were fragmented relative to non-BTIC tumor cell mitochondria, suggesting that BTICs increase mitochondrial(More)
Two isoforms of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) (Nramp2 and DCT1) are encoded by two mRNA species, one of which contains an iron response element (IRE) motif in the 3'-noncoding region. The subcellular distribution of the two isoforms of DMT1 is distinct, and the -IRE species accumulates in the nucleus of neuronal or neuronal-like cells. Reverse(More)
Mn is a neurotoxin that leads to a syndrome resembling Parkinson's disease after prolonged exposure to high concentrations. Our laboratory has been investigating the mechanism by which Mn induces neuronal cell death. To accomplish this, we have utilized rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as a model since they possess much of the biochemical machinery(More)
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme isoforms 1 (IDH1) and 2 (IDH2) have been identified in many adult astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. These mutations are targeted to specific codons (e.g. R132 in IDH1 and R172 in IDH2), making assays to detect them in clinical specimens feasible. We describe a simple and accurate molecular assay for detection(More)
High-grade astrocytomas (HGAs), corresponding to World Health Organization grades III (anaplastic astrocytoma) and IV (glioblastoma; GBM), are biologically aggressive, and their molecular classification is increasingly relevant to clinical management. PDGFRA amplification is common in HGAs, although its prognostic significance remains unclear. Using(More)
Recent insights into the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) activity led to novel therapeutic targeting of AR function in prostate cancer patients. Docetaxel is an approved chemotherapy for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer; however, the mechanism underlying the action of this tubulin-targeting drug is not fully understood. This study(More)
Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a high-morbidity brain disease in the elderly but risk factors are largely unknown. We report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) with HS-Aging pathology as an endophenotype. In collaboration with the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium, data were analyzed from large autopsy cohorts: (#1) National(More)
BACKGROUND Chemical methods of transfection that have proven successful with cell lines often do not work with primary cultures of neurons. Recent data, however, suggest that linear polymers of the cation polyethyleneimine (PEI) can facilitate the uptake of nucleic acids by neurons. Consequently, we examined the ability of a commercial PEI preparation to(More)
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma in the pediatric population. PAs can exhibit variable behavior that does not always correlate with location. Although oncogenic rearrangements of the BRAF gene have recently been described in PAs, it is not clear whether such alterations have an impact on outcome. An institutional cohort of 147 PAs (118(More)