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Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive afferent nerve fibers are abundant in the rat penis. In addition, NADPH-diaphorase, which stains for nitric oxide synthase, has been localized within both autonomic and sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and may be part of an important biochemical pathway involved in penile tumescence. The purpose of this(More)
Strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were tested for in vitro susceptibility with a microtiter plate system in buffered yeast-nitrogen base and in buffered minimal essential medium. Isolates were tested against amphotericin B, flucytosine, rifampin, ketoconazole, ICI 153,066, and Bay n 7133 and against combinations of(More)
The mucosal immune system fulfils the primary function of defence against potential pathogens that may enter across vulnerable surface epithelia. However, a secondary function of the intestinal immune system is to discriminate between pathogen-associated and 'harmless' antigens, expressing active responses against the former and tolerance to the latter.(More)
Mouse embryos are more sensitive than rat embryos in response to methanol (CH(3)OH) and its ability to elicit developmental abnormalities. Intrinsic differences in the metabolism of CH(3)OH to formaldehyde (HCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH) by the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH3), and catalase may contribute to the(More)
Intracellular redox potential of skeletal muscle becomes progressively more oxidized with aging, negatively impacting regenerative ability. We examined the effects of oxidizing redox potential on terminal differentiation of cultured C2C12 myoblasts. Redox potentials were manipulated by changing the culture O(2) environment, by free radical scavenging, or(More)
BACKGROUND Methanol (CH3OH) is believed to be teratogenic based on rodent studies. The mouse is more sensitive than the rat, but mechanisms of toxicity and identification of teratogenic metabolites are uncertain. METHODS Rat and mouse whole embryo cultures are used to distinguish toxicity of CH3OH and its metabolites, formaldehyde (HCHO) and formate(More)
This study was performed in the rat whole-embryo culture system to investigate the effects of glutathione oxidation by diamide, a thiol oxidant, in developing rat conceptuses during early organogenesis. The effects of diamide on reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and embryotoxicity were found to be concentration and time dependent.(More)
The proposed use of methanol (H3COH) as an alternative to fossil fuels has prompted concern about potential health risks resulting from widespread environmental exposure. Methanol is teratogenic in rodents and, although the exact toxic species is not known, teratogenesis may result from the enzymatic biotransformation of H3COH to formaldehyde (CH2O) and(More)
Glutathione (GSH) status has been shown to play a major role in the protection of developing rodent embryos from chemical insult during the teratogen-sensitive period of early organogenesis. Intracellular GSH concentrations in the embryo proper and visceral yolk sac are significant and appear to be regulated spatially and temporally during normal(More)
Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis, although none adequately accounts for the observed malformations and explains the basis for species specificity. Recent observations that thalidomide increases the production of free radicals and elicits oxidative stress, coupled with new insights into the redox(More)