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Although the skeleton's adaptability to load-bearing has been recognized for over a century, the specific mechanical components responsible for strengthening it have not been identified. Here we show that after mechanically stimulating the hindlimbs of adult sheep on a daily basis for a year with 20-minute bursts of very-low-magnitude, high-frequency(More)
Treatment effects are often evaluated by comparing change over time in outcome measures. However, valid analyses of longitudinal data can be problematic when subjects discontinue (dropout) prior to completing the study. This study assessed the merits of likelihood-based repeated measures analyses (MMRM) compared with fixed-effects analysis of variance where(More)
This analysis assessed the effects of duloxetine, a dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine, on indices of cardiovascular safety, including heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and electrocardiograms (ECGs), in a large group of clinical trial patients with depression. Data were available from 8 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled (n =(More)
In the analyses of incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data, there has been a shift, away from simple methods that are valid only if the data are missing completely at random, to more principled ignorable analyses, which are valid under the less restrictive missing at random assumption. The availability of the necessary standard statistical software(More)
BACKGROUND It is widely believed that most antidepressant medications exhibit a delay of 2-4 weeks before clinically relevant improvement can be observed among patients. During this latency period, patients continue to be symptomatic and functionally impaired. Thus, time to onset of effect is an important attribute of a new pharmacotherapy. We assessed the(More)
BACKGROUND While emotional symptoms such as depressed mood and loss of interest have traditionally been considered to constitute the core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), the prevalence and importance of painful physical symptoms such as back pain, abdominal pain, and musculoskeletal pain is becoming increasingly appreciated. Antidepressants(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the safety and tolerability of the antidepressant duloxetine across multiple studies for major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD Safety data were integrated from the acute phases of eight double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in which patients were randomized to duloxetine (40-120 mg/d; n = 1139) or placebo (n = 777) for up to 9(More)
Treatment effects are often evaluated by comparing change over time in outcome measures; however, valid analyses of longitudinal data can be problematic, particularly if some data are missing. For decades, the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach has been a common method of handling missing data. Considerable advances in statistical methodology(More)
OBJECTIVE There are significant unmet needs in the treatment of schizophrenia, especially for the treatment of cognitive impairment, negative syndrome, and cognitive function. Preclinical data suggest that agonists with selective affinity for acetylcholine muscarinic receptors provide a potentially new mechanism to treat schizophrenia. The authors studied(More)
Using standard missing data taxonomy, due to Rubin and co-workers, and simple algebraic derivations, it is argued that some simple but commonly used methods to handle incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data, such as complete case analyses and methods based on last observation carried forward, require restrictive assumptions and stand on a weaker(More)