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To provide an update to “Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012”. A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the population incidence and outcome of severe sepsis occurring in adult patients treated in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs), and compare with recent retrospective estimates from the USA and UK. DESIGN Inception cohort study. SETTING Twenty-three closed multi-disciplinary ICUs of 21 hospitals (16 tertiary(More)
OBJECTIVE Critically ill patients often develop large gastric residual volumes during nasogastric feeding as a result of poor gastroduodenal motility. Nasojejunal feeding may decrease the severity of this complication. The aim of this study was to determine whether nasojejunal feeding improved tolerance of enteral nutrition by reducing gastric residual(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether mild or moderate hypoglycemia that occurs in critically ill patients is independently associated with an increased risk of death. PATIENTS AND METHODS Of patients admitted to 2 hospital intensive care units (ICUs) in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia, from January 1, 2000, to October 14, 2004, we analyzed all those who had at(More)
INTRODUCTION Higher lactate concentrations within the normal reference range (relative hyperlactatemia) are not considered clinically significant. We tested the hypothesis that relative hyperlactatemia is independently associated with an increased risk of hospital death. METHODS This observational study examined a prospectively obtained intensive care(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the association of abnormalities of ionized calcium levels with mortality in a heterogeneous cohort of critically ill patients. DESIGN Retrospective, combined clinical and biochemical study. SETTING Four combined medical/surgical intensive care units. PATIENTS Cohort of 7,024 adult critically ill patients. INTERVENTIONS None. (More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the acid-base effect of low-dose regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING ICUs of tertiary public and private hospitals. SUBJECTS Thirty critically ill patients with acute renal failure at risk of bleeding or with a major(More)
BACKGROUND The Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI) trial aims to determine whether the administration of erythropoietin to patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury improves patient-centred outcomes. METHODS EPO-TBI is a multicentre, blinded, randomised, parallel groups, placebo-controlled, phase III superiority trial of(More)
BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a possible beneficial effect of erythropoietin in improving outcomes in the traumatic brain injury cohort. However, there are concerns regarding the association of erythropoietin and thrombosis in the critically ill. A(More)
To estimate the prevalence, risk factors, prophylactic treatment and impact on mortality for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in the intensive care unit. A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury (EPO-TBI) trial that included twice-weekly lower limb ultrasound(More)